The Intruders were those white folk who illegally
settled on Indian lands. The term squatters could also be
applied to them. From the time of the first intruder who
broke the Kings law, to last treaty of removal,
the intruder was a bane to the authorities (and the Indians).
At times, the authorities dealt fairly with the intruders,
at other times, the authorities were extremely harsh. Those
white folk who hunted on Indian lands, who passed through
those lands with out possessing the required passport, or
who traded with the Indians without possessing the required
license, were also considered intruders.
As the frontier moved to the
south and west, the intruders were there to take the Indians land.
This Intruders Site,
Indian Land Cessions in Tennessee,
and The First People of Tennessee
The Royal Proclamation
Thomas Jeffersons Plan for the Indians
An Ordinance for the Regulation of Indian
Affairs : 1786 :
See full text version
This federal ordinance regulated trade with the Indians
and prohibited settlement on Indian
lands. Passports were required to cross Indian lands.
on Intruders : 1788
An Act to Regulate Trade and Intercourse With the Indian
Tribes : 1790 :
See full text
Under the terms of the federal Trade and
Intercourse Act of 1790 and the U.S. Constitution,
treaties involving the transfer of Indian lands required
participation and approval of the federal
government. The purpose of the law was to protect
Indian nations and tribes from fraudulent
land transactions perpetrated by land speculators
and state governments. Land taken from
Indian nations in violation of this law remains the property
of the Indian nation.
George Washington letter
to Henry Knox : 1790
Quote : Indian Law Resource Center
Here, President George Washington simply questions
Secretary of War, Henry Knox about the recently passed
Trade and Intercourse Act.
Treaty of Holston, 1791 :
See full text version
ARTICLE VIII. If
any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an
Indian, shall settle
on any of the Cherokeesí lands, such person shall forfeit the
protection of the United States, and the Cherokees
may punish him or not, as they please.
Washington letter to Edmund Randolph : 1791
. . . Restraining States or Individuals
from purchasing their lands, and forbidding
unauthorized intercourse in their dealing with them.
Jefferson to David Campbell : 1792
I am satisfied it will ever be preferred to send an armed
force and make war against the intruders as being more just & less expensive.
Jefferson to William Blount : 1792
. . . grants of land by the state of N.
Carolina since her deed of cession, south of the French
Broad river . . . whether it has been by error or under any
claim of right on their part?
An Act to Regulate Trade
and Intercourse with the Indian Tribes, and to Preserve
Peace on the Frontiers : 1796 : See full text version
This greatly modified version of the 1790 Act contained both a boundary
description between the white settlers and the Indians, and methods to enforce
that boundary. This had a great effect on the settlers of northern East Tennessee.
The treaty line in question was established in 1791 and set forth in the Treaty of Holston,
but it was not run for several years. When it was finished, it found settlers
over the treaty line.
They were then intruders.
Governor John Sevier,
Second Inaugural Address : 1797
. . . this bright prospect of affairs is considerably
darkened by the extension of the Indian Boundary
line . . .
Governor John Sevier
to the Tennessee Legislature : 1797
Impending removal of Tennessee settlers by federal troops.
Within the Indian Boundary for the Year 1797 : Grainger County
Governor John Sevier to
the Tennessee Legislature : 1798
The arrest of Tennessee citizens for hunting on
land falsely claimed by the
the Cherokee Lost Elk River : 1807
A federal treaty error caused settlers of the upper Elk River
to become Intruders, but it was all fixed
with a Silent Consideration.
Doubleheads Reserve : 1806-1817
An Act to Prevent Settlements being made on
Lands Ceded to the United States : 1807 :
See full text version
Petition of Bledsoe County Residents who Settled
South of the Indian Boundary
: 1809 :
the List of Intruders on our Bledsoe County Site.
Memoranda to President
Madison : 1809
Giles County Tennessee,
Madison County Mississippi Territory Intruders : 1809-1811
Settlers on Indian Lands Driven Off
Elk River Intruders : 1809
Elk River Intruders Petition : 1810
and Intruders : 1814
Tennessee, Madison Co. M.T. and
Surrounds : 1805-1817 : a Map
Fort Hampton and
Surrounds, Alabama Territory : 1817 : a Map
Memorial to the
Secretary at War : 1819
Memorial of the inhabitants residents in the Cherokee
to the late order for their removal.
An 1820 Claim to Congress ~ Re: Alabama ~ 1817.
Cattle Illegally Seized and
Adverse to the Indian Grant to the Double
Head Company ~ 1828.
A Report on a Memorial to
The Land of Our Ancestors
Indian Land Cessions in Tennessee
First People of Tennessee
Chicksaw and Cherokee Nations -- Queries
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