The 1780 Diary of
Loyalist Lieutenant Anthony Allaire
of King's Mountain

Lt. Anthony Allaire was a New York-born Loyalist (Tory) whom British Col. Patrick Ferguson brought south when the latter was seconded to the South Carolina campaign.(1) According to Draper, he was of Huguenot descent, born at New Rochelle in Westchester County, New York on 22 Feb 1755, and commissioned a Lieutenant in the Loyal American Volunteers where he served as Adjutant in Ferguson's corp during the seige of Charleston, at Monks' Corner, and in the up-country of North and South Carolina, including at King's Mountain. He removed to New Brunswick, Canada in 1783 and died on his farm near Frederickton on 9 Jun 1838, "leaving a daughter who intermarried with Lieutenant John Robinson of the army." (2). Lieutenant Allaire was also survived by his diary, which covers the period 5 Mar - 29 Nov 1780:



Part I: 5 Mar 1780-30 Jun 1780

Sunday, March 5th. The following corps marched from Savannah, viz.: Light Infantry, commanded by Maj. Graham; American Volunteers, Lieut. Col. Ferguson; New York Volunteers, Lieut. Col. Turnbull, North Carolinians, Lieut. Col. Hamilton; South Carolinians, Col. Innes; Dismounted Legion, Maj. Cochrane; one company of Georgia Dragoons, Capt. Campbell, and the First Battalion of the Seventy-first regiment, Maj. McArthur -- in number about fifteen hundred. We marched from Savannah at six o'clock in the morning; arrived at Clierokee Hill, nine miles from Savannah, at twelve o'clock, and encamped to refresh ourselves. At three o'clock in the afternoon got in motion, and marched to Abercorn, eight miles from Cherokee Hill; here we encamped and lay all night. Disagreeable, rainy weather.

Monday, 6th. At eight o'clock we got in motion. and marched to Ebenezer, a village situated on Savannah river, eight miles above Abercorn. It contains about twenty houses and a church. The inhabitants are high Dutch. It is garrisoned by our troops; there are four redoubts, but no cannon in any of them.

Tuesday, 7th. Remained at Ebenezer. Pleasant morning, showery evening and very warm. Spent part of the evening with two Indian Captains, John and James; smoked tobacco and drank grog with those two devils incarnate.

Wednesday, 8th. Still remained at Ebenezer. Orders to draw two days' provisions, and be ready to march at reveille beating. Several men taken suddenly ill with pain and swelling of the extremities, occasioned by a weed that poisons where it touches the naked skin, when the dew is on it.

Thursday, 9th. The army got in motion; passed a causeway three- quarters of a mile in length, overflowed with water from two to three feet. We marched to a plantation ten miles from Ebenezer, called the Two Sisters, situated on Savannah River. It was formerly a public ferry; but at present nobody lives at it. The houses are destroyed.

Friday, 10th. The American Volunteers and British Legion marched three miles up the Augusta road to Tuckasse-King. Here we encamped, and took breakfast in the morning. A Rebel Lieut. Johnson with twenty men surrounded a poor man's house here this morning. They heard we were in motion, but not being certain of it, they came to find out the truth. They did no damage to the family; neither did they tarry long, being informed that we were in possession of the Two Sisters, they thought it proper for the brothers to take themselves off. This is the first Rebel party we have heard of. At three o'clock in the afternoon received orders to take the ground we left in the morning, where I and part of the detachment lay all night. One division crossed the river -- the others to follow as expeditiously as possible.

Saturday, 11th. Crossed the Savannah river; such a fresh that the boats were brought through woods a mile and a half; the water was from four to ten feet deep, where in a dry time we might have marched on dry ground. The horses were swum over the river -- the current sets down very rapid.

South Carolina, Sunday, 12th. Lay encamped a quarter of a mile from the river in the field where Gen. Moultrie was encamped last summer when our troops were retreating from Charleston. A foraging party of the Dragoons fell in with some Rebel Light Horse; and Mr. Campbell of the Georgia Dragoons received a slight wound.

Monday, 13th. The American Volunteers and British Legion were ordered forward twenty-six miles, to secure the passes of Bee creek, Coosawhatchie and Tullyfinny Bridge, which we effected. This day passed Turkey Hill, a pleasant country seat belonging to one Mr. Middleton. We took up our ground at dusk, at Coosawhatchie Bridge, where the Rebels opposed our troops last May and got defeated. A cool, pleasant day for marching.

Tuesday, 14th. Found several horses, a quantity of furniture, Continental stores and ammunition, hid in a swamp by one John Stafford, a sort of Rebel commissary who lives at Coosawhatchie, and is, by the by, a cursed fool, which alone prevents his being a damned rogue. About five o'clock in the afternoon we crossed Tullyfinny Bridge, and proceeded about six miles to Mr. McPherson's. Fifty of the militia on horseback had just left this plantation and gone to John McPherson's. A small party of ours pursued them, but could not come up with them, Maj. Cochrant with the Legion were in pursuit of another party of Revels on another road; but being mis-piloted, he arrived just before break of day in front of our picket. He immediately conjectured we were the party he had been in pursuit of all night. He halted and made a position with an intent to attack as soon as it began to be clearly light; but the alertness of our sentinels obliged them to come on sooner than they intended. He immediately, on their firing, rushed on the picket; they gave the alarm, but were driven to the house, where our men ready for the attack, expecting it was Rebels, a smart skirmish ensued. The sad mistake was soon discovered, but not before two brave soldiers of the American Volunteers, and one of the Legion were killed, and several on both sides badly wounded. Col. Ferguson got wounded in the arm by a bayonet, Lieut. McPherson, of the Legion, in the arm and hand.

Wednesday, 15th. Still remained at McPherson's plantation; foraging parties get everything necessary for the army.

Thursday, 16th. Remained at McPherson's plantation, living on the fat of the land, the soldiers every side of us roasting turkeys, fowls, pigs, etc., every night in great plenty ; this Mr. McPherson being a great Rebel, and a man of vast property, at present in Charlestown. About thirty Rebels showed themselves this morning, a mile and a half in front of us. A party went out in pursuit of them ; but returned without effecting anything-the jockeys being on horseback easily made off.

Friday [17th]. Still at McPherson's. Three militia men were brought in prisoners by a scouting party of the American Volunteers, and a number of horses. Received orders to march tomorrow morning.

Saturday, 18th. Marched from McPherson's plantation to Saltketcher, a Rebel party consisting of eighty mititia, commanded by a Maj. Ladson, placed themselves on the north side of the river to oppose our crossing. They were amused by a company of the Legion returning their fire across the river at the place where the bridge formerly was, whilst the Light Infantry and remainder of the Legion crossed the river below, and came in the rear of them before they were aware of it. Here the bayonet was introduced so effectually that a Capt. Mills, and sixteen privates of the Rebels, could not exist any longer, and of course gave up the cause. Four were badly wounded, and one taken prisoner that luckily escaped the bayonet. Maj. Graham, of the Light Infantry, and Maj. Wright, of the Georgia Loyalists, slightly wounded. The former continued to command his battalion, and the latter continued his march. Two privates of the Light Infantry were also slightly wounded. We remained all night at Ogilvies' plantation, on the side of the river called Indian land. This day'smarch was very tedious—a disagreeable, rainy, cold day, and through a swamp where the water was from two to three feet deep.

Sunday, 19th. Passed Saltketcher river—where the bridge formerly stood, but has been destroyed since the rebellion—in boats, and swam the horses. The causeway on both sides of the river is overflowed with water from two to three feet deep, at the ferry house, about a quarter of a mile from the river. Dr. Johnson dressed the wounds of Maj. Wright and the four Rebels that were bayoneted yesterday. Marched one mile and a half to a tavern kept by Mr. Gibson, who is at present prisoner in Charleston, for not taking up arms when his country so loudly calls for assistance.

Monday, 20th. The army got in motion, marching about two miles. Received orders to halt, the rear guard being fired on ; it proved to be the (New—L.C.D.) York Volunteers, getting the boats on the carriages at the river, were fired on by a skulking party of rascals on the other side of the stream. Three poor lads of the York Volunteers were killed. What damage was done to the Rebels we are not certain. Detained by this and repairing of bridges on the road, we only marched seven miles this day. Took up our ground at a place called Godfrey's savannah.

Tuesday, 21st. The army got in motion. Marched to Fish Pond river. Here we were detained to repair the bridge till evening. Before we crossed we moved on about three miles, through a swamp, over an exceeding bad causeway. This day Col. Tarleton, with his dragoons, joined us from Beaufort, where he had been to get horses—his being all lost on the passage from New York. We took up our ground about ten o'clock at night, and remained till ten o'clock next morning.

Wednesday, 22d. The army got in motion at ten in the morning, and marched as far as Horse Shoe, where we again were detained to repair the bridge. After crossing,continued our march to Jacksonsburgh, a village containing about sixty houses, situated on Pon Pon, or Edisto river. The most of the houses are very good; the people tolerable well to live; some large store houses for rice, from which they convey it by water to Charleston market. In short, it is a pleasant little place, and well situated for trade, but the inhabitants are all Rebels—not a man remaining in the town, except two, one of whom was so sick he could not get out of bed, and the other a doctor, who had the name of a friend to Government. The women were treated very tenderly, and with the utmost civility, notwithstanding their husbands were out in arms against us.

Thursday, 23d. All the army, except the Seventy-first regiment, and greatest part of the baggage, crossed the river in boats and flats, the bridge being destroyed. Col. Tarleton came up with a party of Rebel militia dragoons, soon after crossing the river at Gov. Bee's plantation. He killed ten, and took four prisoners. Gov. Bee was formerly Lieut. Gov. under His Majesty, is now one of the members of Congress, and Lieut. Gov. of South Carolina.

Friday, 24th. The remainder of the baggage and Seventy-first regiment passed Pon Pon river. The army got in motion about one o'clock in the afternoon, and marched about seven miles, where we halted all night. A flag of truce, consisting of a Capt. Saunders, Capt. Wilkinson, one private and a servant, came in at the rear of the army. Just as we halted they were severely reprimanded by Gen. Paterson for their unmilitary conduct. He told them that they were ignorant of the profession they followed; and in consequence of their behavior he must detain them all night, and, as to their request, it would not be granted, which was likewise very unmilitary, it being to speak with the prisoners and give them some necessaries. The gentrv of the flag were led blind-fold to their lodging. This day Col. Ferguson got the rear guard in order to do his King and country justice, by protecting friends, and widows, and destroying Rebel property ; also to collect live stock for the use of the army, all of which we effect as we go, by destroying furniture, breaking windows, etc., taking all their horned cattle, horses, mules, sheep, fowls, etc., and their negroes to drive them. We had a disagreeable night—very heavy shower, with a great deal of heavy thunder ana lightning.

Saturday, 25th. The army got in motion at reveille beating, and marched to Stono, where was formerly a bridge, called Wallace's Bridge. We took up our ground about three o'clock in the afternoon, where we remained all night. Light Infantry and part of the Dragoons went over the river.

Sunday,26th. Consumed the whole day in passing the baggage and live stock over the river, the bridge that formerly stood here being destroyed, and the one just made,very bad. We took up our ground as soon as we got over, on a neck of land that runs down between Stono and Rantowle's, only one mile between the two rivers. This day the Commander-in-chief came to us from James Island, .vhich is six miles distant.

Monday, 27th. Two companies of Light Infantry, American Volunteers, and one company of Dragoons, crossed at Rantowle's in scows; the rest of the army crossed yesterday. Col. Hamilton, of the North Carolinians, and Dr. Smith, of the Hospital, proceeding about a mile in front of the army, to Gov. Rutledge's house, were immediately surrounded by three hundred Continental Light Horse, and they consequently made prisoners. The British Dragoons fell in with them soon after, and had a skirmish; the Rebels soon gave way, and showed them the road,as is customary for them to do. Qr. Master Sergeant Mcintosh, of the Georgia Dragoons, badly wounded in the face by a broadsword. Several Dragoons of the Legion were wounded. How many of the Rebels got hurt we can't learn; but they did not keep up the combat long enough for many to receive damage. This morning, Capt. Saunders, that came in with the flag on the 24th, was sent out; his attendant, Capt. Wilkinson, not being mentioned in the body of the flag, is detained as a prisoner of war. We took up our ground on Gov. Rutledge's plantation, about one mile from his house, where we remained all night.

Tuesday, 28th. The army got in motion about nine o'clock in the morning, and marched to Ashley Ferry, where we met the British and Hessians, Grenadiers, Light Infantry and Yagers, under command of Sir. H. Clinton. We continued our march down the river about six miles to Lining's plantation; it is situated on Ashley river, nearly opposite Charlestown, and commands an extensive view towards the sea.

Wednesday, 29th. Sir Henry Clinton, with the British and Hessians, Grenadiers, Light Infantry and Yagers, passed over Ashley river to Charleston Neck, early in the morning. Spend the day in viewing Charleston and found it not a little like New York; for Ashley and Cooper rivers form a bay exactly like East and North river at New York.

Thursday, 30th. Incessant firing of small arms on the neck; cannon at short intervals. This firing was at the Commander-in-chief and his family reconnoitering. He forbid the British returning the fire. Lord Cathness, standing by the side of Gen. Clinton, was shot through the body by a musket ball; one Yager killed.

Friday, 31st. Engineers' tools, etc., carried over from Lining's Landing, and broke ground without molestation, under the direction of Maj. Moncrieff. Rode two miles to see two redoubts, one of which has six, and the other two thirty-two pounders in them, at the mouth of Wapoo-Cut, a river that runs from Stono to Ashley river, and separates from the main land what is called James Island. Those two redoubts are exactly opposite Charleston.

Saturday, April 1st. Some cannon and mortars moved over Ashley river from Lining's Landing.

Sunday, 2d. Rode down to view our fleet that lay at Stono.

Monday, 3d. Marched to Ashley Ferry to cover the Dragoons of the Legion whilst crossing the river. Marched from this up the river to Henry Middleton's plantation; passed several famous country seats, one called Drayton's Hall, belonging to William Henry Drayton, deceased, who was a member of Congress, and died at Philadelphia. Constant firing at our works from the Rebels all day.

Tuesday, 4th. Constant cannonade from the Rebels, both from their batteries and shipping; one of their ships, endeavoring to move up Cooper river, was fired on from our works, and drove back.

Wednesday, 5th. Constant cannonade from the Rebels at our works on the Neck, in the evening. Our batteries at the mouth of Wapoo-Cut opened, and kept up a warm fire for a few minutes, then the firing ceased on both sides.

Thursday, 6th. Cannonade from the Rebels all day by intervals. In the evening our batteries opened on the Neck, and at Wapoo-Cut fired all night by intervals.

Friday, 7th. Cannonade at intervals as usual.

Saturday, 8th. But little firing from the Rebels. Rainy, disagreeable morning. The rebels were reinforced with thirteen hundred men last night, commanded by a Gen. Scott. They fired a feu de joie, and rang all the bells in town on the occasion. About four o'clock this afternoon the fleet hove in sight, coming up under full sail with a fresh breeze at south west, and passed Fort Moultrie -- the Rebel fort that they boasted of on Sullivan's Island, which no fleet could ever pass. They were but a few minutes passing. What damage is sustained we have not yet learned. The Richmond lost her fore top-mast; a cutter lay opposite the fort all the time the fleet was passing, with a flay hoisted to point out the channel. A heavy cannonade from the Rebels' batteries, which the shipping returned as they passed with a spirit becoming Britons.

Sunday, 9th. Admiral Arbuthnot came on shore, and went over to Headquarters on the Neck. By him we were informed that there were only seven men killed, and fifteen wounded, in passing Sullivan's Island. The shipping damage was so trifling that ‘twas not worth mentioning.

Monday, 10th. Nothing extraordinary. Cannonade from our batteries during the night to cover the working parties.

Tuesday, 11th. Col. Ferguson came from Headquarters. Informs us that the town was summoned to surrender to his Britannic Majesty. Answer was returned, that they thought it necessary as well as their duty to defend it to the last extremity, which they meant to do.

Wednesday,12th. Received orders to march. The North Carolinians were ordered to join Col. Ferguson. We left Lining's plantation about seven o'clock in the evening, and marched to Bacon's Bridge, twenty-two miles, where we arrived at five o'clock on Thursday morning; very much fatigued. We halted to refresh till seven. Cool weather.

Thursday, 13th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning. Marched through a small village called Dorchester. It contains about forty houses and a church. Continued our march to Middleton's plantation at Goose creek, about fifteen miles from Bacon's Bridge, and ten from Dorchester. Here we met the Legion about one o'clock in the afternoon, and halted till ten at night. Then, in company with them, got in motion and marched eighteen miles to Monk's Corner, being informed that Col. Washington's, Pulaski's, Bland's, and Harry's Light Horse lay here. We arrived just as day began to appear on Friday morning, and found the above enemy here, in number about four hundred, including some militia that arrived the day before, commanded by Gen. Huger. Luckily for them, they were under marching orders, which made them more alert, when the alarm was given, than usual, which alone prevented their being all taken completely by surprise. They made off with great expedition. We pursued, overtook and killed Pulaski's Major Vernier, wounded a French Lieut. Beaulait,* and one other officer; about sixty privates were taken, fifteen or twenty of whom were wounded. We had but one man wounded, and he very slightly. We took thirty wagons, with four horses in each. A number of very fine horses that belonged to their troops were likewise taken, and converted to British Light horses. Col. Washington and all their officers made but a narrow escape; their baggage, letters, and some of their commissions were taken.
* Lieut. Beaulait has been very unfortunate since in America He received seven wounds by a broadsword, in a charge of Campbell's Light Horse, when Charlestown was besieged by Gen. Provost, and two at Monk's Corner, which amounts to nine, four or five of them in the face.-A. A.
Friday, 14th. Remained at Monk's Corner, collecting the stores, etc. About seven o'clock at night, accidentally a store house caught fire, in which were two casks of powder; was very much alarmed by the explosion, and all got under arms. This confusion was scarcely over when three ladies came to our camp in great distress: Lady Colleton, Miss Betsy Giles, and Miss Jean Russell. They had been most shockingly abused by a plundering villain. Lady Colleton badly cut in the hand by a broadsword,and bruised very much. After my friend, Dr. Johnson, dressed her hand, he, with an officer and twelve men, went to the plantation, about one mile from camp, to protect Mrs. Fayssoux, whom this infamous villain had likewise abused in the same manner. There he found a most accomplished, amiable lady in the greatest distress imaginable. After he took a little blood from her she was more composed, and next morning come to camp to testify against the cursed villain that abused them in this horrid manner. He was secured and sent to Headquarters for trial.

Saturday, 15th. The army got in motion about twelve o'clock. My friend, Dr Johnson, and myself had the happiness of escorting the ladies to their plantation. Before we got there we were met by a servant informing us that there were more plunderers in the house. This news so shocked Lady Colleton and Mrs. Fayssoux, who were some distance before us, and the young ladies in a carriage, that I am not able to describe their melancholy situation, which was truly deplorable. After their fright was a little over we passed on to their house; but the ladies fearing to stay alone, Lady Colleton and Mrs. Fayssoux got into the carriage, Miss Giles behind me, and Miss Russell on a horse, which I led for fear he should make off with my fair one; they passed on with us four miles to a plantation called Mulberry Broughton, and here we bid adieu to our fair companions with great regret, they thinking themselves out of danger of any insults. We this day countermarched to the twenty-three mile house, and halted all night.

Sunday, 16th. Got in motion about three o'clock in the morning, and marched to Strawberry Ferry, a branch of Cooper river. Took up the day in passing the army and baggage over the stream. After crossing, marched four miles to Bono Ferry, another branch of Cooper river, where we came up with the baggage of the Thirty-third and Sixty-fourth Regiments, and of the Legion. Here we lay all night, as it took up the night to get this baggage over the river. A Captain's guard from our detachment was sent over to take charge of a store house full of household furniture, brought out of town and deposited at a Maj. Butler's for safety -the store was full of very rich furniture of all kinds.

Monday, 17th. Crossed Bono Ferry and passed on to Miller's Bridge, over a branch of Wando river, where we took up our ground about nine o'clock in the evening. This day passed St. Thomas' church, where we met the Thirty-third regiment.

Tuesday, 18th. Began to fortify at the Bridge, and make a block house in order to keep post here with a few men.

Wednesday, 19th. Maj. Ferguson, with fifty of the American Volunteers, and part of the North Carolinians, moved on to join the Thirty-third and Sixty-fourth regiments, and the British Legion, which had gone forward to attack a Rebel post at Lempriere's Point. The British were coming back; they had marched up to the fort, but found it so strong that it was imprudent to storin it with so few men.

Thursday, 20th. Remained at Miller's Bridge, finishing the block house. Col. Tarleton surprised and took nine sloops with goods, stores, etc., and twenty pieces of cannon.

Friday, 21st. Capt. Ryerson, with forty American Volunteers, a subaltern, and twenty of the Thirty-third, and a subaltern, and twenty of the Sixty-fourth regiments, remained at Miller's Bridge to defend and keep the pass. The remainder of the Thirty-third and Sixty-fourth regiments, American Volunteers, and British Legion, countermarched twelve miles and took up our ground at St. Thomas' church.

Saturday, 22d. Took possession of the parish house; took up and was under the disagreeable neccessity of detaining a lady of the town, on suspicion of her being a spy.

January (sic—L.C.D.) 23d. Moved from the house into the woods for the convenience of shade—very warm weather.

Monday, 24th. Lord Cornwallis joined us and took command. About ten o'clock in the evening there was the most tremendous cannonade I ever heard, and an incessant fire of musketry. The Rebels sallied out and took eight of the Light Infantry prisoners, upon which the whole line got under arms; some in their hurry getting out without putting on their coats, were taken by the others for Rebels, and fired on, which unluckily occasioned warm work for a few minutes. Sixty odd of ours got killed and wounded by our own men. The Rebels were repulsed, and they finding their muskets rather an incumbrance threw thirty odd of them away.

Tuesday, 25th. About eight o'clock in the morning got in motion; were joined by the Twenty-third regiment and Volunteers of Ireland. We proceeded on, passed over Miller's Bridge and Waputa Bridge, took possession of Waputa meeting house, about seven o'clock in the evening, where we halted till two in the morning.

Wednesday, 26th. At two o'clock in the morning got in motion, and marched seventeen miles to Mount Pleasant, opposite Charleston, where we took possession of the ground, on which the Rebels had one eighteen pounder. Here is a ferry from this to a town called Hibban's Ferry; there are very good barracks here if finished, that were begun before the rebellion. Sullivan's Island is about a half a mile distant from the Point. There is a bridge from the Point to the Island with four arches. The barracks were used for a hospital, in which we took some invalids and a doctor. About six miles from the Point stands Christ Church. This night I might properly sing, "Content with our hard fate, my boys," on the cold ground where I lay—wrapt up in my great coat, with my saddle for a pillow. A blustering cold night.

Thursday, 27th. Got in motion about one o'clock in the morning, and countermarched to Waputa meeting house. Cold north-east wind.

Friday, 28th. Fortified the small house by the side of the meeting house, at ten o'clock at night. Intelligence being received that the Rebels had left the fort at Lempriere's Point, and gone to Charleston, we got in motion and marched down to discover the fact. We arrived about four in the morning, and found the fort occupied by the Navy, a Lieutenant of the Navy, commanding officer. The Rebels were gone to Charleston.

Saturday, 29th. Countermarched to our old grounds at the meeting house. Pleasant weather.

Sunday,30th. Got in motion at three o'clock in the morning, in company with the (New—L.C.D.) York Volunteers, and marched to Lempriere's Point to take post there. We got to our ground about seven o'clock in the evening, where we found four eighteen, two four pounders, and five swivels, that the Rebels left in their fort. A very disagreeable post it is, being nothing but a bank of sand, where, in a windy day, you must keep your eyes shut or have them filled with sand. Here used to be a ferry called Lempriere's Ferry.

Monday, May 1st. Bathed in Wando river.

Tuesday, 2nd. Began to fortify Lempriere's Point. Maj. Ferguson, with a detachment of American Volunteers, marched down to Mount Pleasant, stormed and took possession of a little redoubt, located partly on the main, and partly on the bridge that leads to Fort Moultrie. This cuts off the communication from Sullivan's Island, and keeps them on their proper allowance. The Rebels ran off from the redoubt, though it was very strongly situated, after they fired about a dozen shot.

Wednesday, 3d. Still fortifying Lempriere's Point. In the evening began a cannonade on the neck, which continued very heavy all night—an incessant firing of musketry, the cannon chiefly from the Rebels, small arms from us. This night took their hospital ship that lay opposite the town.

Thursday, 4th. Continued fortifying the Point. Rode from Lempriere's Point to Mount Pleasant; dined with Capt. Ord, of the Navy. After dinner rode to Hurdle's (Haddrell's?—L.C.D.) Point to view the redoubt which Col. Ferguson stormed the second of May, with only sixty men and never was more surprised in my life, for twenty men like the American Volunteers would have defied all Washington'S Army.

Friday,5th. Very windy—in danger of losing one's eyes by the blowing of sand. Cold blustering night.

Saturday, 6th. Very disagreeable, windy day. Still at Lempriere's. News just received from Lord Cornwallis, that Lieut. Nash and eleven dragoons that were patrolling, were taken by Washington and Horry's Light Horse near Santee river. Col. Tarleton was immediately ordered to pursue them. He overtook them at the river; charged and killed a number, and took a Major and thirty privates. The patrolling party that had been taken were in a boat, rowing across the river. Upon their seeing Col. Tarleton, they immediately seized the guard, threw them overboard, rowed themselves back and joined their regiment again. Col. Washington and Horry took to the river and swam across it.

Sunday,7th. Orders to get ready to march with two days' provision, at a minute's notice. Maj. Ferguson had obtained permission to attack Fort Moultrie. He rode forward with four dragoons to reconnoitre. We were to remain at our post till we got orders for marching. The first news we heard was the fort was in possession of the British; the Rebels had surrendered themselves prisoners of war. Capitulation was as follows: Capt. Hudson of the Navy summoned the fort on Friday, and received for answer: "Tol, lol, de rol, lol: Fort Moultrie will be defended to the last extremity." On Saturday he sent another flag, and demanded a surrender, acquainting Col. Scott that the Lieutenant with the flag would wait a quarter of an hour for an answer. If the fort was not given up, he would immediately storm it, and put all the garrison to the sword. At this Col. Scott changed the tune of his song, begging that there might be a cessation of arms, that the fort would be given up on the following conditions: that the officers both Continental and militia, should march out with the honors of war, and be allowed to wear their side arms; the officers and soldiers of. the militia have paroles to go to their respective homes, and remain peaceably till exchanged; and the continental soldiers to be treated tenderly. Granted by Capt. Hudson. About eight o'clock Sunday morning, Colonel Scott with his men, about one hundred and twenty, marched out of the fort, piled their arms, Capt. Hudson marched in, took possession of Fort Moultrie, the key to Charleston harbor; which puts it in our power to keep out any forcing enemy that would wish to give the Rebels any assistance. Taken in the fort, fifty barrels of powder, forty-four pieces of cannon, one brass ten inch mortar, three thousand cannon cartridges, five hundred ten inch shells, forty thousand musket cartridges, three month's salt provision, a lot of rice, forty head black cattle, sixty sheep, twenty goats, forty fat hogs, six wagons, two stand of colors, an amazing quantity of lunt (match-cord for firing cannon—L.C.D.); and, in short, so many other articles which are necessary in a fort that it would take me a week to set them down.

Monday, 8th. Six o'clock in the morning, Sir Henry Clinton sent in a flag, and demanded the surrender of Charleston. General Lincoln requested cessation of hostilities till eight o'clock—from eight to twelve; and the truce continued until four o'clock Tuesday evening when Sir Henry Clinton receiving a very insolent request, sent in word that he plainly saw that Gen. Lincoln did not mean to give up the town; that the firing should commence at eight o'clock in the evening, at which time began a most tremendous cannonade, throwing of carcases and shells into the town, and an incessant fire of musketry all night.

Wednesday, 10th. Firing still continued all day, and very brisk all night.

Thursday, 11th. The town set on fire by a carcase, which burnt several houses. The Rebels sent out a flag soon after; our firing continued without taking notice of their flag. They showed the second flag, which we accepted. It was begging the terms that had been offered the last truce. Sir Henry Clinton answered them the firing should cease until he could send and consult Admiral Arbuthnot. The terms were granted.

Friday, 12th. The gates were opened, Gen. Leslie at the head of the British Grenadiers, Seventh, Sixty-third and Sixty-fourth regiments, and Hessian Grenadiers marched in, and took possession of Charleston, and soon leveled the thirteen stripes with the dust, and displayed the British standard on their ramparts. Still at Lempriere's.

Saturday, 13th. Remained at Lempriere's.

Sunday,14th. Went to Charleston to view their strong works. Saw the poor Rebel dogs very much chagrined at not being allowed to wear their side arms.

Monday, 15th. Magazine blew up—set the town on fire—burnt several houses. Capt. Collins and Lieut. Gordon, of the artillery, Lieut. M'Leod [McLeod] of the Forty-second regiment, and about thirty privates, perished by the explosion. In what way the accident happened is not certain; 'tis supposed by throwing the captured arms into the magazine, one went off, and set fire to the powder.

Tuesday, 16th. The American Volunteers relieved the Navy, and took command of Fort Moultrie.

Wednesday, 17th. Spent the day in writing letters for New York. Nothing new.

Thursday, 18th, to Sunday, 21st. Lay at Fort Moultrie. Nothing extra.

Monday, 22d. Received orders for marching—went to Charleston.

Tuesday, 23d. About three o'clock in the afternoon returned in a six-oared boat, and had the pleasing view of sixty or seventy large ships coming into the harbor.

Wednesday, 24th. Lay at Fort Moultrie.

Thursday, 25th. The detachment was relieved by British and Hessian Grenadiers. The American Volunteers marched up to Mount Pleasant, and crossed over to Charleston. Marched through the town, and took up their ground just in front of the lines. The horses and baggage with myself crossed from Lempriere's Point to the Ship Yard, which is about two miles from the town.

Friday, 26th. The following corps got in motion about three o'clock in the morning, under the command of Col. Balfour, of the Twenty-third regiment, viz—Light Infantry, commanded by Maj. Graham, three companies of the Seventh by Capt. Peacock, American Volunteers by Maj. Ferguson, and the Prince of Wales American Volunteers by Lieut. Col. Patterson—in number about six hundred. Marched out to the Ten Mile House, and halted. Made bough houses to cover the men from the heat of the sun. Heavy thunder shower.

Saturday, 27th. Marched at five o'clock in the morning; through a piece of low ground covered with magnolias in full bloom which emitted a most delicious odor. We took up our ground at a plantation about two miles from the Twenty-Three Mile House.

Sunday, 28th. Got in motion at two o'clock in the morning. Marched to Monk's Corner and halted. Dr. Johnson and myself went and dined with Lady Colleton, Miss Russell and Miss Giles, the ladies we protected in their distress when we were here the fourteenth of April.

Tuesday, 30th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched to Gen. Moultrie's planation, at a place called Prussia, where we halted.

Wednesday, 31st. Got in motion at half past four in the morning; marched to Greenland swamp, and halter.

Thursday, June 1st. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched to Nelson's Ferry, Santee river. By express were informed that Col. Tarleton, Monday, the 29th, fell in with a body of Rebels, (Buford's corp—L.C.D.) forty miles above Camden. He summoned them to surrender—received all insolent answer, charged them, killed one Lieutenant-Colonel, three Captains, eight Subalterns, one Adjutant, one Quarter­Master, and ninety-nine Sergeants and rank and file. Wounded three Captains, five Subalterns, and one hundred and forty-two rank and file. Made prisoners two Captains, one Subaltern, fifty rank and file. Total killed, wounded and taken prisoners, one Lieutenant-Colonel, eight Captains, fourteen Subalterns, one Adjutant, one Quarter-Master, and two hundred and ninety-one Sergeants, rank and file; three stand of colors taken, two brass six-pounders, two howitzers, two wagons with ammunition, one artillery forge wagon, fifty-five barrels powder, twenty-six wagons loaded with clothing, camp equipage, musket-cartridges, cartridge-boxes, flints, etc., etc. Killed of the Legion, Lieut. McDonald and Ensign Campbell, serving with the cavalry, two privates of the cavalry, and one of the Light Infantry. Total, two Subalterns, and three rank and file. Wounded, Lieut. Patterson, seven dragoons, making eight rank and file of the cavalry, and three of the infantry. Total wounded, one Subaltern, and eleven rank and file.

Friday, 2nd. Lay encamped in a pleasant field near Nelson's Ferry. Ordered to be in readiness to march at two o'clock in the morning.

Saturday, 3d. Got in motion two o'clock in the morning. Marched to Campbell's plantation, where we halted in the woods for the convenience of shade. This place is seventy-seven miles from Charleston.

Sunday, 4th. Lay in the woods at Campbell's plantation. Some prize wine shared to the different corps; very convenient time to drink his Majesty's health.

Monday, 5th. Got in motion at two o'clock in the morning, and marched to Cave Hall, St. Matthew's parish. Just below our camp was a remarkably large cave, about an hundred feet deep. There is a room formed by a rock sixty feet long, and forty wide, with famous grand arches formed by nature. Through the middle runs a beautiful stream of water, which heads in a fountain at the farther end of the cave. This day twenty militia men came in, and brought the new-fangled Governor of Georgia prisoner. He was sent to Charleston. He had taken protection from Lord Cornwallis as a private man.

Tuesday, 6th. Got in motion at three o'clock in the morning, and marched thirteeen [sic] miles to Col. Thomson's, and halted on the march. Started [Startled?] two bucks; they ran in amongst the men. One of them got caught. The militia were in from all quarters.

Wednesday, 7th. Lay encamped at Col. Thomson's plantation; a field in our rear covered with sensitive plant and passion flower.

Thursday, 8th. Still at Thomson's plantation. A thunder shower every afternoon.

Friday, 9th. Encamped still at Thomson's plantation; wrote a letter to Miss -----.

Saturday, 10th. Got in motion and left Thomson's at twelve o'clock at night, and marched eighteen miles to Beaver creek, where we halted. Maj. Graham, and two flank companies of the Prince of Wales American Volunteers, remained at Thomson's. This day a company of militia came in with their arms. A Henry Meholm, an old man eighty-one years of age, this day met us; he had left home with an intention to go to Charleston, and had walked upwards of an hundred miles when he met us. His errand was to get some kind of assistance. He had been plundered by the Rebels, and stripped of everything. What is remarkable, this old gentleman left at home a child between two and three years old.

Sunday, 11th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched five miles and halted.

Monday, 12th. Got in motion at two o'clock in the morning, and marched fourteen miles to Congaree Stores. This day passed a plantation where were about four hundred acres of Indian corn growing—the property of one man.

Tuesday, 13th. Lay at Congaree Stores. Many good friends to Government have suffered much by the Rebels.

Wednesday, 14th. Lay at Congaree Stores. Capt. Peacock and the three companies of Royal Fusileers under his command, remain here; Col. Patterson and his battalion to go to Camden.

Thursday, 15th. Got in motion at twelve o'clock at night, and marched twelve miles to Saluda Ferry; crossed the river and halted.

Friday, 16th. motion at half after four o'clock in the morning, and marched seven miles to the blacksmith's, and halted.

Saturday, 17th. Lay still in the field at the blacksmith's, or High Hill creek.

Sunday, 18th. Got in motion at two o'clock in the morning, and marched fourteen miles to a Capt. Wright's, of Col. Innes' regiment.

Monday, 19th. Got in motion at four o'clock in the morning, and marched to Cook's place, fourteen miles. This Cook is a Rebel Justice and Captain—a great persecutor of friends to Government. He is ordered down to John's Island, a place pointed out for the reception of such infamous villains.

Tuesday, 20th. Got in motion and marched to Davenport's, fourteen miles. He was formerly Captain of militia under Government. He has the name of a Tory from his neighbors; but many of his actions were doubtful.

Wednesday, 21st. Lay encamped at Davenport's, Little river.

Thursday, 22d. Got in motion at twelve, and marched ten miles to the fording place, Saluda river; crossed the men and baggage in a scow, and forded the horses; continued our march six miles to Ninety Six, where we halted. It is a village or country town—contains about twelve dwelling houses, a court-house and a jail, in which are confined about forty Rebels, brought in prisoners by the friends to Government, who have just now got the opportunity, and gladly embrace it, many of them having been obliged before this to hide in swamps to keep from prison themselves. Ninety Six is situated on an eminence, the land cleared for a mile around it, in a flourishing part of the country, supplied with very good water, enjoys a free, open air, and is esteemed a healthy place. Here were condemned seventy-five friends to Government at one court; five were executed—the others got reprieved.

Friday, 23d. Lay in the field at Ninety Six. Some friends came in, four were wounded. The militia had embodied at Tuckasegie, on the South Fork of Catawba river—were attacked by a party of Rebels, under command of Gen. Rutherford. The miltia [sic] were scant of ammunition, which obliged them to retreat. They were obliged to swim the river at a mill dam. The Rebels fired on them and killed thirty.* Col. Ferguson, with forty American Volunteers, pushed with all speed in pursuit of the Rebels. It is seventy miles distance from Ninety Six. The militia are flocking to him from all parts of the country.

* Col. Moore's defeat at Ramsour's Mill, June 20th—L.C.D..

Saturday, 24th. Took quarters in town, opposite the jail, where I have the constant view of the Rebels peeping through the grates, which affords some satisfaction to see them suffer for their folly. Some of them are magistrates; one the executioner of the five that were hanged here some time in April, 1779.

Sunday, 25th, to Tuesday, 27th. Spent in cleaning, parade, and in the town.

Thursday, 29th, and Friday, 30th. Still at Ninety Six. Nothing extra.

Continued in Part II

(Excerpted from King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It by Lyman C. Draper, Cincinnati, 1881, pp. 484-515)

1 "Loyalist Anthony Allaire" by Ruth Scott, Officers Quarterly, York-Sunbury Historical Society, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, Summer 1997

2 King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It by Lyman C. Draper, Cincinnati, 1881, p. 480

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