DIARY OF LIEUT. ANTHONY ALLAIRE,
OF FERGUSON'S CORPS.
MEMORANDUM OF OCCURRENCES DURING THE
CAMPAIGN OF 1780.
Part II: 01 Aug 1780-25 Nov 1780
Saturday, July 1st. Took a ride into the country for exercise.
Sunday, 2d, to Saturday, 8th. Still at Ninety Six.
Sunday, 9th. The American Volunteers moved from Ninety Six at seven o'clock in the evening, under the command of Captain DePeyster, and marched seven miles to Island Ford, of Saluda river, on our way to meet a party of Rebels that were making approaches towards our lines. Dr. Johnson and I being late before we left our old quarters, without any guide, got out of the road; found our mistake at a mill, three miles from the road we ought to have taken. It turned out to be no great loss, as we have supplied ourselves with a grist of corn for our horses. We came up to the detachment at one o'clock in the morning. Our baggage had not arrived, which put us to the necessity of going to a house to lodge. We found two women, and spent the night, though not to our satisfaction. It afforded some merry scenes with those two modest country women.
Monday, 10th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning; crossed Saluda in a flat; marched nine miles to a Rebel Col. Williams' plantation, where we halted. Mrs. Williams and the children were at home, and were treated with the utmost civility. Col. Williams is with the Rebels, and is a very violent, persecuting scoundrel.
Tuesday, 11th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched eight miles to Indian creek, and halted during the heat of the day at one Ryan's, who is a good friend, and suffered much for his loyalty. Got in motion at six o'clock in the evening, and marched eleven miles to Duncan's creek, where we halted at a Widow Brown's.
Wednesday, 12th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the evening, and forded Duncan's creek and Enoree river. Continued marching to Capt. Frost's, at Padget creek, eight miles from the Widow Brown's. This evening met an express with the disagreeable news of a party of ours consisting of seventeen of the Legion, eighteen York Volunteers, and twenty-five militia being defeated at Col. Bratton's, at Fishing creek.*
* Capt. Hook or Huck defeated that morningL.C.D.
Thursday, 13th. Lieut. Hunt of the Legion Cavalry came to our quarters at Capt. Frost's. He was one of the party defeated the twelfth inst. He gave an imperfect account of the affair. Capt. Huck commanded the party consisting of one subaltern and seventeen dragoons of the Legion, three subalterns and eighteen New York Volunteers, twenty-five militia men. They were sent in pursuit of a Rebel party, and arrived at twelve o'clock, Tuesday night, the 11th instant, at Col. Bratton's, at Fishing creek, and were very much fatigued. They thought to rest themselves. Unfortunately a Rebel party commanded by a Col. Lacey came upon them at four o'clock in the morning of the 12th, who were in amongst them, and had possession of every pass before they where apprised of itexcept a road leading towards North Carolina, where Captain Huck, with four dragoons, attempted to make off. Huck got shot through the neck, of which he died. Mr. Hunt, with one dragoon, took a foot path leading to a swamp. The militia he could give no account of. We left Capt. Frost's about six o'clock in the evening; forded Tyger river, continued our march twelve miles to Sugar creek. Here we found two hundred militia encamped at Wofford's old field, Fair Forest, under command of Majors Plummer and Gibbs. The Rebels, we hear, are collecting in force at the Catawba Nation and Broad river.
Friday, 14th. Lay encamped at Fair Forest. Every hour news from different parts of the country of Rebel parties doing mischief. Light Infantry of Gen. Browne's corps joined us at twelve o'clock at night.
Saturday, 15th. Went in company with Capt. F. De Peyster, Dr. Johnson, and Lieut. Fletcher, to dine with Col. Fletchall. After dinner went to see his mill, which was a curiosity, having never seen such an one before. The water falls fourteen feet perpendicularly down into a tub, fixed with buckets; from this tub runs up a shaft through the stone, and turns, as the cog turns, a double-geared mill. Returning to camp were informed that Capt. Dunlap had been obliged to retreat from Prince's Fort. Capt. Dunlap made an attack upon the Rebels; drove them from their ground, took one prisoner, who informed him that the Rebels were four hundred strong. Upon this information Dunlap thought proper to retreat, as his number was only fourteen American Volunteers and sixty militia. We lost two killed, a sergeant and private wounded, and one prisoner. The loss of the Rebels is uncertainreports are, twenty or thirty killed. Upon this news arriving, Capt. De Peyster ordered the American Volunteers and militia to get in motion to support Dunlap. Capt. Frederick De Peyster, with one hundred militia men, marched twelve miles to McElwain's creek, where they met Dunlap.
Sunday, 16th. Dunlap with the men under his command marched down to Stephen White's plantation, where the American Volunteers and militia lay.
Monday, 17th. Lay at White's. The militia brought in four prisoners, one lad of fifteen years old, badly wounded in the arms.
Tuesday, 18th. Still at Mitchell's creek. This day Col. Ferguson came to us from Nintey [sic] Six; brought news that the Light Infantry were on their march to join us.
Wednesday, 19th. Still at White's plantation, on Mitchell's creek.
Thursday, 20th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the evening, and marched six miles to Fair Forest Ford, where we halted and lay all night.
Friday, 21st. Col. Balfour, with the Light Infantry from Ninety Six, joined uswe still remained at the Ford.
Saturday, 22d. The Light Infantry, American Volunteers, and three hundred militia, got in motion at seven o'clock in the evening; made a forced march of twenty-five miles to Lawson's Fork to surprise a party of Rebels, who, we were informed, lay there. We arrived at James Wood's plantation at six o'clock in the morning; greatly disappointed at finding no Rebels here. We were informed they were at Green rivertwenty-five miles farther.
Sunday, 23d. Got in motion at one o'clock in the morning, and countermarched to our old ground, Fair Forest Ford.
Monday, 24th. Very much fatigued; slept all day.
Tuesday, 25th. Col. Balfour with the Light Infantry got in motion at two o'clock in the morning, and marched towards Ninety Six.
Wednesday, 26th. Lay at our old ground, Fair Forest.
Thursday, 27th. Got in motion at nine o'clock in the morning; forded Fair Forest river; marched about three miles and took up our ground in the wood.
Friday, 28th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning, and marched eight miles to Col. Henderson's plantation, Pacolet river. Henderson is prisoner at Charlestown; he has a pretty plantation, with near two hundred acres of Indian corn growing.
Saturday, 29th. Got in motion at eight o'clock in the morning, and marched five miles to Thicketty river and halted; one of the soldiers killed a Continental rattle-snake, with thirteen rattles on.
Sunday, 30th. Got in motion at three o'clock in the morning; countermarched twelve miles to Armstrong's creek, Fair Forest. This day came into camp express from Anderson's fort, a Capt. Cook, aged sixty years, who has buried four wives, and now has his fifth on her last legs.
Monday, 31st. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning, and marched ten miles to Mitchell's creek, Fair Forest; a very wet, disagreeable day; got thoroughly soaked.
Tuesday, August 1st. Lay at Mitchell's creek. Had intelligence that the Rebels had attacked Col. Turnbull at Rocky Mount, on Sunday the 30th; but could not learn the particulars.
Wednesday, 2d. Got in motion at four o'clock in the morning; marched
four miles to Tyger river; forded that stream and continued our march to
Capt. Bobo's, and halted. Had intelligence that Col. Turnbull beat off the
Rebels; Capt. Hulett got wounded in the head. The Rebels were commanded by
Gen. Sumter. He sent in a flag, demanding the postRocky Mount. Col.
Turnbull sent word that he might come and take it. Sumter endeavored to do
so, but was obliged soon to retreat with considerable loss. Col. Turnbull
took two prisoners, who had previously been in his camp, drew ammunition,
and then joined the Rebels, and were heard to say when firing,
"take back your ammunition again." They were both hanged as a reward for
Thursday, 3d. Lay at Bobo's; nothing extra.
Friday, 4th. Still at Bobo's. At six o'clock in the evening moved three-quarters of a mile for advantage of ground.
Saturday, 5th. Lay in the woods near Bobo's. Had intelligence that Fort Anderson, in which we had a Sergeant of the American Volunteers, and eighty militia men, was summoned on Sunday the 30th July, and given up in a dastardly manner, without exchanging a single shot.*
* Col. Patrick Moore, commanding, taken by Col. Shelby and othersL.C.D.
Sunday, 6th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the evening. Left the heights near Bobo's, upon hearing that the Rebels were collecting in force at Ford's Mills. We made a forced march of sixteen miles in order to surprise them; marched all night; got to our ground at Jemmie's creek at six o'clock in the morning of the 7th, where we heard the Rebels had moved seven miles to Phillip's Ford.
Monday, 7th. Got in motion at seven in the evening, and made another forced march for them; and fording Jemmie's creek and the South and North branches of Tyger river. Got to the ground the Rebels were encamped on, at four o'clock on Tuesday morning, August eighth. They had intelligence of our move, and were likewise alarmed by the firing of a gun in our ranks; they sneaked from their ground about half an hour before we arrived.
Tuesday, 8th. Learning that the Rebel wagons were three miles in front of us at Cedar Springs, Captain Dunlap, with fourteen mounted men, and a hundred and thirty militia, were dispatched to take the wagons. He met three Rebels coming to reconnoitre our camp; he pursued, took two of themthe other escaped, giving the Rebels the alarm. In pursuit of this man, Dunlap and his party rushed into the centre of the Rebel camp, where they lay in ambush, before he was aware of their presence. A skirmish ensued, in which Dunlap got slightly wounded, and had between twenty and thirty killed and woundedEnsign McFarland and one private taken prisoners. The Rebel loss is uncertain. A Maj. Smith, Capt. Potts, and two privates, were left dead on the field. Col. Clarke, Johnson (Robertson,L.C.D.) and twenty privates were seen wounded. We pursued them five miles to the Iron Works, but were not able to overtake them, they being all mounted. We countermarched five miles to Cedar Springs, and halted to refresh during the heat of the day. At six in the evening, marched and took a height near the ground the Rebels left.
Wednesday, 9th. Lay on the heights; nothing extra.
Thursday, 10th. Sent the wounded to Musgrove's Mills, Enoree river, to be attended by Dr. Ross. We marched about seven miles to Culbertson's plantation, on Fair Forest. Express arrived from Col. Turnbull at Rocky Mount, with orders to join him. By the express heard that Sumter had attacked Hanging Rock the 6th instant. The North Carolinians were first attacked; they gave way. Brown's corps came up, but were obliged to give way. The Legion Cavalry came in the Rebels' rear, and soon gained the day. Brown's corps suffered muchthree officers killed, and three woundedan hundred men taken prisoners.
Friday 11th. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning. Marched ten miles to Maj. Gibbs' plantation; lay all night.
Saturday, 12th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning, and marched seven miles to a Rebel Capt. Stripling's plantation. He has taken protection, and as yet has not broken his promise. A Maj. Rutherford* came with a flag; in consequence of his coming in our rear, without giving signal by drum or trumpet, was detained all night, and threatened with imprisonment.
* Maj. Rutherford, a son of Gen. Rutherford, distinguished himself at Ramsour's Mill, and was subsequently killed at Eutaw SpringsL.C.D.
Sunday, 13th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched nine miles to Tinker creek. At seven in the evening got in motion and marched five miles to Smith's Mills, on Swift's creek. Here we lay all night.
Monday, 14th. Got in motion at four o'clock in the morning; Marched to the Quaker fording place; forded Tyger river, continued our march to a Rebel Col. James Lisle's plantation. Lisle is in the Rebel servicehis family at home.
Tuesday, 15th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning. Marched two miles to Lisle's Ford; forded Broad riverproceeded seven miles to a Mr. Coleman's in Mobley's settlement; halted during the heat of the day. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the evening; marched two miles to the camp of the New York Volunteers, where we got intelligence that Gen. Gates lay within three miles of Camden, with an army of seven thousand men. Col. Turnbull had orders the twelfth to retreat from Rocky Mount, and act as he saw properto get to Camden if he could. Sumter appeared with cannon at Rocky Mount, about twelve hours after Col. Turnbull left it, in order to make a second trial for the post. He found not so harsh a reception as his first attempt.
Wednesday, 16th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning, and marched two miles to Mobley's meeting house for convenience of ground.
Thursday, 17th. Got in motion at nine o'clock in the morning, and marched six miles to a Rebel Col. Winn's plantation. Winn is at James Island, a prisoner.
Friday, 18th. Lay at Winn's plantation, waiting news from Camden, having spies out upon every quarter.
Saturday, 19th. Lay at Winn's plantation. An express arrived from Camden with the agreeable news of Lord Cornwallis' attacking and totally defeating Gates' army on the morning of the 16th; twelve hundred were killed and wounded, left on the field; and one thousand prisoners, eight brass field pieces taken, being all the Rebels had in the field, several stand of colors, all their ammunition wagons, a hundred and fifty wagons of baggage, provisions, and stores of different kinds. All this with the trifling loss on our side of not more than ten officers killed and wounded, and two or three hundred non-commissioned officers and privates. We received orders to pursue Sumter, he having the only remains of what the Rebels can call a corps in these parts at present. At six o'clock in the evening our wagons were ordered forward that we might pursue Sumter with vigor. At seven we got in motion. That very moment an express arrived from Col. Innes', who was on his way from Ninety Six to join us, informing us that he had been attacked by a body of Rebels at Musgrove's Mills on Enoree river; that himself, and Major Fraser of his regiment, were wounded, as were Capt. Peter Campbell, Lieuts. Chew and Camp, of Col. Allen's regiment. He wished for support as many of the militia had left him. This, to our great mortification, altered the course of our march. At eleven at night, we got in motion; marched all night; forded Broad river at sun-rising.
Sunday, 20th. Proceeded four miles, and took up our ground at Peter's creek, where we lay all day, fatigued with our night's march, being eighteen miles. While we lay at Col. Winn's, a Mr. Smith was executed for joining the Rebels after he had taken protection, and been allowed to embody himself with our militia.
Monday, 21st. Got in motion at one o'clock in the morning, and marched six miles to a Rebel Capt. Lipham's on Padget creek. Took up our ground at five o'clock in the morning. This morning was so cold that we were glad to hover round large fires as soon as we halted. About one o'clock a Mr. Duncan came to our camp with the agreeable news that Col. Tarleton, with three companies of the Light Infantry, and the Legion Cavalry, fell in with Sumter about twelve o'clock on Saturday, the nineteenth.* He found them all asleep after the fatigue of two nights' rapid retreat. Their horses were all at pasture. The first alarm was the Light Infantry firing upon them. Col. Tarleton, with his usual success, gained a complete victory over Gen. Sumter; took two brass field pieces, made two hundred and fifty prisoners, eight hundred horses, thirty wagons, and retook a hundred of Brown's men that were captured at Hanging Rock. Captain Duncan made his escape from the Rebels during the engagement, he being a prisoner. Got in motion at eleven o'clock in the evening; marched ten miles to Tyger river; forded it at break of day.
* It was really the preceding day, Friday, 18th.L.C.D.
Tuesday morning, 22d. Continued our march four miles to Harrison's plantation, on Fair Forest, where we halted.
Wednesday, 23d. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning, and marched six miles to John Blasingame's plantation, on Sugar creek, where we took up our ground. Col. Ferguson set out for Camden.
Thursday, 24th. Still lay at Blasingame's, on Sugar creek.
Friday, 25th. Still at Blasingame's.
Saturday, 26th. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning; marched six miles to John Wofford's plantation, on McClure's creek.
Sunday, 27th. Lay at McClure's creek; nothing extra.
Monday, 28th. Got in motion at five o'clock, and marched six miles to Culbertson's plantation, near Fair Forest river.
Tuesday, 29th, to Thursday, 31st. Lay at Culbertson's; nothing extra.
Friday, September 1st. Still remained at Culbertson's. Maj. Ferguson joined us again from Camden with the disagreeable news that we were to be separated from the army, and act on the frontiers with the militia.
Saturday, 2d. Got in motion at eleven o'clock in the morning; forded Fair Forest river, and marched ten miles to the Iron Works, on Lawson's Fork of Pacolet river. Here was a Rebel militia-man that got wounded in the right arm at the skirmish at Cedar Springs, the eighth of August. The bone was very much shattered. It was taken off by one Frost, a blacksmith, with a shoemaker's knife and carpenter's saw. He stopped the blood with the fungus of the oak, without taking up a blood vessel.
Sunday, 3d. My friend Johnson and I bathed in the stream at the Iron Works.
Monday, 4th. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning, and marched ten miles to Case's creek, where we halted all night.
Tuesday, 5th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the evening, and marched a mile and a half to Pacolet river, and halted. The fresh was so high we could not ford the river. I took lodging, with my friend Johnson, who was very unwell, at one Coleman's, who is a very warm Tory. His wife and all her children have been stripped of all their clothes, bedding, and other furniture. She was mother of five children in two years.
Wednesday, 6th. Got in motion at eight o'clock in the morning; marched six miles to Buck's creek; dined at one Nelson's. Here was a hearty old man, named William Case, a hundred and nine years old. He is a native of New England. Talks very strong; gives some faint description of New England. His memory began to fail seven years past; he lost his eyesight about eighteen months past; is otherwise very hale; walks amazingly spry, and danced a jig.
Thursday, 7th. Got in motion at seven o'clock in the morning; crossed Buck creek, and the division line of South and North Carolina; marched six miles farther, and halted. Maj. Ferguson, with about fifty of the American Volunteers, and three hundred militia, got in motion at six o'clock in the evening, and marched to Gilbert Town in order to surprise a party of Rebels that we heard were there. Capt. DePeyster and I remained on the ground we took in the morning, with the remainder of the American Volunteers and militia.
Friday, 8th. Got in motion at eight in the morning, and marched six miles to Broad river, and took a height where we halted, and waited orders from Maj. Ferguson.
Saturday, 9th. Remained on the ground; received intelligence from Maj. Ferguson to keep our post. He was returning to keep a good lookout, as the Georgians were coming towards us.
Sunday, 10th. Col. Ferguson joined us about eleven o'clock at night.
Monday, 11th. Got in motion at four o'clock in the evening; forded Broad river and continued on our march ten miles to one Adair's plantation, and halted.
Tuesday, 12th. Maj. Ferguson, with forty American Volunteers and one hundred militia, got in motion at two o'clock in the morning, and marched fourteen miles through the mountains to the head of Cane creek, in Burke County, in order to surprise a party of Rebels we heard lay there. Unfortunately for us, they had by some means got intelligence of our coming, in consequence of which, Mr. McDowell, with three hundred infamous villains like himself, thought it highly necessary to remove their quarters. However, we were lucky enough to take a different route from what they expected, and met them on their way, and to appearance one would have thought they meant sincerely to fight us, as they drew up on an eminence for action. On our approach they fired and gave way. We totally routed them, killed one private, wounded a Capt. White, took seventeen prisoners, twelve horses, all their ammunition, which was only twenty pounds of powder, after which we marched to their encampment, and found it abandoned by those Congress heroes. Our loss was two wounded and one killed. Among the wounded was Capt. Dunlap, who received two slight wounds. After the skirmish we returned to one Allen's to refresh ourselves. We got in motion about four o'clock in the afternoon, and countermarched about six miles to a Rebel Mr. Jones', where we halted all night.
Wednesday, 13th. Got in motion about eight o'clock in the morning and continued countermarching to a Rebel Col. Walker's plantation where we met Capt. Ryerson and Lieut. Fletcher with the remainder of the American Volunteers and militia. Here we took up our ground, very much fatigued with our enterprise.
Thursday, 14th. Lay still at Col. Walker's. The poor, deluded people of this Province begin to be sensible of their error, and come in very fast. Maj. Ferguson, with thirty American Volunteers, and three hundred militia, got in motion at six o'clock, and marched to the head of Cane creek, and halted at one Wilson's.
Friday, 15th. Capt. DePeyster and I, who remained at Col. Walker's with the remainder of the American Volunteers and militia, got in motion at six o'clock in the morning, and marched twelve miles to one Bowman's, near the head of Cane creek, and halted. This creek is so amazingly crooked that we were obliged to cross it nineteen times in marching four miles. Mrs. Bowman is an exceedingly obliging woman. She had a child about four years old, who had smoked tobacco almost three years. At four o'clock in the afternoon got in motion, and marched a mile and a half to Wilson's, where we joined Maj. Ferguson. At ten o'clock in the evening we got in motion, with the American Volunteers and five hundred militia, leaving Capt. Ryerson and Lieut. Fletcher, with two hundred militia, to guard the baggage, and marched fifteen miles to one John Forsyth's, on the banks of the Catawba, to surprise Col. McDowell. We arrived there about six o'clock in the morning of the 16th. Col. McDowell had left this place the 14th. We countermarched to one Devore's, and halted to refresh ourselves. At three o'clock got in motion; marched to Pleasant Garden Ford, Catawba river; forded it, and continued our march to one George Cathy's plantation, about a mile and a half from Devore's. Pleasant Garden is a very handsome place. I was surprised to see so beautiful a tract of land in the mountains. This settlement is composed of the most violent Rebels I ever saw, particularly the young ladies.
Sunday, 17th. Got in motion and marched two miles to Buck's creek, forded it, and continued our march two miles farther to a Rebel Maj. Davidson's plantation, and halted.
Monday, 18th. Got in motion, countermarched to Buck creek, forded it, and proceeded on five miles to Richey's Ford, on Catawba river, forded it, and marched to a Rebel Alexander Thompson's plantation, six miles farther, and halted.
Tuesday, 19th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched about eleven miles to a Rebel Mr. Hemphill's plantation, and halted. At seven o'clock in the evening, I went about a mile and joined Capt. Ryerson and the militia under his command.
Wednesday, 20th. Got in motion at six o'clock in the morning, and marched a mile and a half to one White's plantation, where we joined Maj. Ferguson again. This day three officers belonging to Cruger and Allen's regiments, joined us from Ninety Six, with fifty militia men.
Thursday, 21st. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning and marched fourteen miles to a Rebel Samuel Andrew's plantation, and halted. On the march I saw eight wild turkeys.
Friday, 22d. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning; marched five miles to Col. Walker's plantation, and halted.
Saturday, 23d. Got in motion at nine o'clock in the morning; marched three miles to Gilbert Town; took up our ground on a height about half a mile from the town. This town contains one dwelling house, one barn, a blacksmith's shop, and some out-houses.
Sunday, 24th. Five hundred subjects came in, also a number of ladies. Received intelligence from Col. Cruger, that he had marched from Ninety Six to Augusta, to the assistance of Col. Browne, who was besieged by six hundred Rebels, under the command of Col. Clarke. Fortunately for Col. Browne, the Cherokee Indians, for whom he is agent, were coming to Augusta for their yearly presents. They met the Rebels just as they were going into the town, which obliged them to fight. The Rebels being too numerous, and the Indians unacquainted with field fighting, were obliged to make the best of their way to a fort on one flank of the town, where Col. Browne had retired to. He made a very gallant defence for five days, two of which he was without bread or water. On Col. Cruger's approach, the Rebels moved off with their plunder, of which they had a tolerable share. Col. Cruger arrived time enough to retake the cannon which they had taken from Browne, and about thirty prisoners.
Monday, 25th, and Tuesday, 26th. Lay at Gilbert Town; nothing extra.
Wednesday, 27th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched three miles to Rucker's Mill, and halted.
Thursday, 28th. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning; marched seven miles to Mountain creek, forded it, although very difficult, continued on about a mile farther to Twitty's Ford of Broad river, and took up our ground on its banks. At six o'clock in the evening got in motion, forded the river; marched two miles to McDaniel's Ford of Green river; forded it, and marched two miles farther; halted on the road; lay on our arms till four o'clock the next morning.
Friday, 29th. We then, at that early hour, moved on three miles to one James Step's plantation, and halted. This man has been very unfortunate in his family; his wife, who is a very decent woman, was caught by the Indians about a twelvemonth past. They scalped and tomahawked her several times in the head, treated the infant she had in her arms in a most inhuman and savage manner. They mashed its head in such a manner that its recovery is truly astonishing; but what this poor, unhappy woman seems most to regret is the loss of her oldest son, whom the savages took, and she now remains in a state of uncertainty, not having heard from him since.
Saturday, 30th. Lay at James Step's with an expectation of intercepting Col. Clarke on his return to the mountains; but he was prudent enough to take another route.
Sunday, October 1st. Got in motion at five o'clock in the morning, and marched twelve miles to Denard's Ford of Broad river, and took up our old ground where we lay the 8th September.
Monday, 2d. Got in motion at four o'clock in the afternoon; forded Broad river; marched four miles; formed in line of action and lay on our arms. This night I had nothing but the canopy of heaven to cover me.
Tuesday, 3d. Got in motion at four o'clock in the morning; marched six miles to Camp's Ford of Second Broad river, forded it and continued on six miles to one Armstrong's plantation, on the banks of Sandy Run. Halted to refresh; at four o'clock got in motion; forded Sandy Run; marched seven miles to Buffalo creek; forded it; marched a mile farther and halted near one Tate's plantation. John West came in camp, who is a hundred and one years of age; is amazingly strong in every sense.
Friday, 6th Got in motion at four o'clock in the morning, and marched sixteen miles to Little King's Mountain, where we took up our ground.
Saturday, 7th. About two o'clock in the afternoon twenty-five hundred Rebels, under the command of Brig.-Gen. Williams, and ten
Colonels, attacked us. Maj. Ferguson had eight hundred men. The
action continued an hour and five minutes; but their numbers enabled them to surround us. The North Carolina regiment seeing this, and numbers being out of ammunition, gave way, which naturally threw the rest of the militia into confusion. Our poor little detachment, which consisted of only seventy men when we marched to the field of action, were all killed and wounded but twenty; and those brave fellows were soon crowded as close as possible by the militia. Capt. DePeyster, on whom the command devolved, saw it impossible to form six men together; thought it necessary to surrender to save the lives of the brave men who were left. We lost in this action, Maj. Ferguson, of the Seventy-first regiment, a man much attached to his King and country, well informed in the art of war; he was brave and humane, and an agreeable companion; in short, he was universally esteemed in the army, and I have every reason to regret his unhappy fate. We had eighteen men killed on the spot; Capt. Ryerson and thirty-two privates wounded of Maj. Ferguson'S detachment; Lieut. Mcginnis, of Allen's regiment of Skinner's Brigade, killed. Taken prisoners, Two Captains, four Lieutenants, three Ensigns, and one Surgeon, and fifty-four sergeants rank and file, including the mounted men under the command of Lieut. Taylor. Of the militia, one hundred were killed, including officers; wounded, ninety; taken prisoners, about six hundred. Our baggage, all taken, of course. Rebels lost
Brig.-Gen. Williams, one hundred and thirty-five, including officers, killed; wounded, equal to ours.
Sunday, 8th. They thought it necessary to move us sixteen miles, to one Waldron's plantation where they halted.
Monday, 9th. Moved two miles and a half to Bullock creek;* forded it, and halted on the banks.
* Apparently Boren's CreekBullock's creek was some fifteen or eighteen miles distant.L.C.D.
Tuesday, 10th. Moved twenty miles and halted in the woods.
Wednesday, 11th. Moved at eight o'clock in the morning; marched twelve miles to Col. Walker's and halted.
Thursay, 12th. Those villains divided our baggage, although they had promised on their word we should have it all.
Friday, 13th. Moved six miles to Bickerstaff's plantation. In the evening their liberality extended so far as to send five old shirts to nine of us, as a change of linenother things in like proportion.
Saturday, 14th. Twelve field officers were chosen to try the militia prisonersparticularly those who had the most influence in the country. They condemed thirtyin the evening they began to execute Lieut.-Col. Mills, Capt. Wilson, Capt. Chitwood, and six others, who unfortunately fell a sacrifice to their infamous mock jury. Mills, Wilson, and Chitwood died like Romans the others were reprieved.
Sunday, 15th. Moved at five o'clock in the morning. Marched all day through the raina very disagreeable road. We got to Catawba and forded it at Island Ford, about ten o'clock at night. Our march was thirty-two miles. All the men were worn out with fatigue and fasting the prisoners having no bread or or meat for two days before. We officers were allowed to go to Col. McDowell's, where we lodged comfortably. About one hundred prisoners made their escape on this march.
Monday, 16th. Moved at two o'clock in the afternoon. Marched five miles; forded the north branch of Catawba and John's river; halted at a Tory plantation.
Tuesday, 17th. Moved at eight o'clock in the morning. Marched fifteen miles; halted at Capt. Hatt's plantation. Three prisoners attempted to make their escape this night; two succeeded--the other was shot through the body.
Wednesday, 18th. About five o'clock in the morning the Rebels executed the man who unfortunately got wounded in attempting to make his escape. We moved at eight o'clock in the morning, and marched eighteen miles to Moravian creek, and halted.
Thursday, 19th. Moved at eight o'clock in the morning; forded Moravian creek, passed by Wilkes Court House, and marched sixteen miles to one Hagwoods' plantation and halted.
Friday, 20th. Moved at eleven o'clock in the morning; marched six miles to Mr. Sale's plantation, and halted.
Saturday, 21st. Several Tory women brought us butter, milk, honey, and many other necessaries of life. Moved at ten o'clock in the morning, and marched fifteen miles to Mr. Headpeth's plantation, a great Tory, who is at present with Lord Cornwallis. We lodged at Mr. Edward Clinton's who is likewise with Lord Cornwallis.
Sunday, 22nd. Moved at ten o'clock in the morning. Obtained liberty to go forward with Col. Shelby to Salem, a town inhabited by Moravians. Rode ten miles, and forded Yadkin river at Shallow Ford. Proceeded on fourteen miles farther to Salem.. Went to meeting i the evening; highly entertained with the decency of theose people, and with their music. Salem contains about twenty homes, and a place of worship. The people of this town are all mechanics; those of the other two Moravian settlements are all farmers, and all stanch friends to Govenrment.
Monday, 23rd. Lay at Salem in the evening. Two Continental officers slept at the tavern, on their way to join their army. One Mr. Simons, a Lieutenant of Col. Washington's dragoons, was exceeding polite, pitied our misfortune in falling into the hands of their militia.
Tuesday, 24th. Moved at ten o'clock in the morning; marched six miles to the old town called Bethabara. Here we joined the camp again. This town is about as large as the other; but not so regularly laid out. The inhabitants very kind to all the prisoners. This night Dr. Johnson and I were disturbed by a Capt. Campbell, who came into our room, and ordered us up in a most peremptory manner. He wanted our bed. I was obliged to go to Col. Campbell, and wake him to get the ruffian turned out of the room; otherwise he would have murdered us, having his sword drawn, and strutting about with it in a truly cowardly manner.
Wednesday, 25th. The men of our detachment, on Capt. DePeyster passing his word for their good behavior, were permitted to go into houses in the town without a guard.
Thursday, 26th to Saturday, 28th. Nothing extra.
Sunday, 29th. Col. Cleveland waited on Capt. DePeyster and the rest of the officers, and asked us if we, with our men, would come and hear a sermon at ten o'clock. He marched the militia prisoners from their encampment to the town, and halted them; and sent an officer to our quarters to acquaint us they were waiting for us. We then ordered our men to fall inp; marched to the front of the prisoners; the whole then proceeded on to a height about half a mile from the town. Here we heard a Presbyterian sermon, truly adapted to their principles of the times; or, rather, stuffed as full of Republicanism as their camp is of horse thieves.
Monday, 30th. A number of the inhabitants assembled at Bethabara to see a poor Tory prisoner executed for a crime of the following nature, viz: A Rebel soldier was passing the guard where the prisoners were confined, and like a brute addressed himself to those unhappy people in this style: "Ah, d--n you, you'll all be hanged." This man, with the spirit of a British subject, answered, "Never mind that, it will be your turn next." But Col. Cleveland's goodness extended so far as to reprive him.
Tuesday, 30th [sic]. Rode to Salem in company with Capt. DePeyster, Dr. Johnson and Mr. Supple. This night very cold; forze ice a quarter of an inch thickthe first this fall.
Wednesday, November 1st. My friend, Dr. Johnson, insulted and beaten by Col. Celveland for attempting to dress a man whom they had cut on the march. Col. Armstrong relieved Cleveland in the afternoon, and took the command.
Thursday, 2nd. Took a walk with Capt. DePeyster, Dr. Johnson and Mr. Taylor to Bathania, three miles from Bethabara. This town contains about thirty houses; it is regularly laid out.
Friday, 3d. Heard by a countryman, who was moving his family over the mountains to nolachucky, that General Leslie had landed at James river, in Virginia.
Saturday, 4th. Dined at a country house.
Sunday, 5th. Set off from Bethabara in company with Lieut. Taylor, Lieut. Stevenson, and William Gist, a militia-man, about six o'clock in the evening. We marched fifteen miles to Yadkin river; forded it, found it very disagreeable. We continued on twenty miles farther to Mr. Miller's plantation, an exceeding good subject. Here we arrived just at daybreak the next morning.
Monday, 6th. Took up our ground in the bushes, about half a mile from the house. At ten o'clock, we sent Mr. Gist to the house for some victuals. He found Mr. Miller at home, who very readily gave us all the assistance that lay in his power. About two o'clock, he brought us some victuals, which we were very happy to see, being very hungry after our fatiguing march the night before. In conversation, which very naturally run upon the safest way, guides, etc., Mr. Miller told us he knew a militia Capt. Turner, and one or two more subjects, then lying in the bushes, who would be very happy to join Lord Cornwallis; and they were also excellent guides. On this we consulted, and thought it prudent to stay all night. Mr. Miller then fetched us a blanket, and immediately set out to find those people.
Tuesday, 7th. Mr. Miller returned informing us that one of those men would be with us at six o'clock in the evening. We waited till seven, but the man not coming, we thought it prudent to go without him. We set out about half after seven; marched six miles to one Carpenter's. When we arrived there, Mr. Carpenter advised us to remain there the remainder of the night, and he would go to Mr. Miller, and send him again for the men. We then consulted, and thought it best to stay a day or twothen to proceed on, without a guide.
Wednesday, 8th. Lay very snug in the bushes. About four o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. Carpenter returned and told us Mr. Miller was gone in search of a guide, and was to return with an answer as soon as possible. Suffered exceedingly with the cold this day.
Thursday, 9th. Heard of the Rebels following us, but they getting false intelligence, returned again, which was much in our favor. In the course of the day, we thought it would be prudent to get the best directions we could, and proceed on, without a guide, rather than remain too long in one place, lest some of those people might be treacherous. We got direction from Mr. Carpenter for sixty miles, and at six o'clock in the evening, set out; marched thirty miles, and halted in the woods at daybreak.
Friday, 10th. Suffered very much with the cold. At six o'clock in the evening set out again. This night saw the moon in an eclipse, and heard several wolves bark. Passed a Rebel party consisting of twelve or fourteen, who lay about twenty yards from the road by a fire; but very fortunately for us, they were all asleep. We marched thirty miles and arrived at Colbert Blair's, just at daybreak.
Saturday, 11th. It began to rain just after we got to Mr. Blair's. Lucky we were indeed. This good man secreted us in his fodder-house, and gave us the best his house afforded.
Sunday, 12th. Remained at Mr. Blair's; a rainy, disagreeable day.
Monday, 13th. Set out from this good man's fodder-house. He conducted us about three miles to a Mr. F. Rider's, who guided us seven miles farther, over the Brushy Mountains, to Catawba river. Mr. John Murray, who lived on the bank of the river, put us over in a canoe, and conducted us three miles to Mr. Ballou's. This old man was about sixty years of age; but his love for his King and his subjects induced him to get up, although very late at night, and guided us seven miles to a Mr. Hilterbrine's. On the way the old man informed us he had two sons who lay out in the woods, who were anxious to go to our army, and were also good guides. He also told us of one Williams, that was a good guide, and who would be glad to go with us. We told the old man we should be very happy to have them, as the road began to grow more dangerous, and we quite unacquainted with the way. This poor old man expressed a great deal of anxiety for our safety, and at last told us he would go the next day and endeavor to find them, and send them to us. We arrived at Hilterbrine's about six o'clock in the morning of the 14th. He received us with great caution, lest we should be treacherous; but when he found we were British officers he was very kind.
Wednesday, 15th. Just as we were drinking a dish of coffee, on a rock, after dusk, those three young men came to us on horseback, which made us very happy. We set out immediately, and marched twenty miles over the Brushy Mountains, where there was nothing but Indian paths. Crossed several small rivers. We arrived at one Sheppard's plantation, just at daybreak of the 16th. This poor family were so completely stripped of everything they had, by the Rebels, that they could give us nothing but a hoe cake, and some dried beef, which was but a very indifferent repast for hungry stomachs. At six o'clock in the evening set out; marched sixteen miles to Camp's Ford of Second Broad river; forded it, and continued on three and a half miles farther to Island Ford of Main Broad river; forded it, and marched one mile to Capt. Townsend's plantation. This man received three balls in the action on King's Mountain, and was at home on parole. He was very happy to see us, and gave us the best his house afforded.
Friday, 17th. Set out at six o'clock in the evening; marched twelve miles to a Mr. Morris'. Here we were told that a party of Rebels were directly in our front; that we had better remain there that night, in which time we could send Mr. Williams, who was with us, and well acquainted with that neighborhood, to get a militia Capt. Robins, who lay out in the woods, and was going to our army in a day or two. This man was so good a guide that it induced us to stay.
Saturday, 18th. Lay in the woods; fared pretty well.
Sunday, 19th. Mr. Williams returned, but without effecting what he went after. We had a council of safety; found it necessary to proceed on. We got Mr. Murray to guide us to the main road that leads to the Iron Works, which is twelve miles distant. We set out about three o'clock in the afternoon; took by-paths. and got in the main road just at dusk. We crossed Pacolet river, Lawson's Fork, and Tyger river; passed a Rebel guard; marched thirty-seven miles, and arrived at James Duncan's plantation, half an hour before daybreak of the 20th. About ten o'clock Mrs. Duncan rode out to see if she could get any intelligence of our army, and of the Rebel army, that we might shun the latter. Mrs. Duncan returned in less than an hour, with the disagreeable news that the Rebel army was marching within two miles of us, and were going to encamp at Blackstock's, about four miles from us. This news truly discouraged me. About five o'clock in the evening Mr. Duncan came to us with agreeable newsthat Col. Tarleton was in pursuit of the Rebels. At six o'clock a Mr. Jackson came to us, and informed us he had seen Col. Tarleton; he had also heard he had had an action with Sumter, who commanded the Rebels, but did not know the particulars. He advised us to go to his house and stay all night, as we would be perfectly safe there, and the next morning go to Mr. Smith's, where we could hear the particulars of the action, as there were some of the Legion wounded there. We agreed to what the man said; staid all night at his house, where we were treated very kindly.
Tuesday, 21st. Mr. Duncan conducted us to Mr. Smith's, where we found six of the Legion wounded.
Wednesday, 22d. Set out from Archey Smith's on horseback, which the subjects in that neighborhood supplied us with. They brought us on thirteen miles to one Adair's. Here we dismounted, and those good people returned. We continued thirteen miles to Williams' Fort, which was commanded by Col. Kirkland, who received us very kindly.
Thursday, 23d. Set out from Col. Kirkland's, who was kind enough to lend us horses as far as Saluda. Left the horses here; crossed in a scow; walked a mile to Col. Mayson's; dined; got horses and rode to Ninety Six. Arrived at Capt. John Barbarie's* quarters, about eight o'clock in the evening.
* Capt. Barbarie belonged to the New Jersey Volunteers; was captured at Staten Island in 1777; doubtless shared in the siege of Charleston. as he did in the siege of Ninety Six, during which he was wounded; and was again wounded at Eutaw Springs. He received half pay, and settled at St. Johns, New Brunswick, where he became a Colonel of the militia, and a magistrate. He died at Sussex Vale in 1818 at the age of sixty-seven. His son, Andrew Barbarie, was a member of the Assembly of that ProvinceL.C.D.
Friday, 24th. Remained at Ninety Six; nothing extra.
Saturday, 25th. Set out for Charleston, Where I arrived the 29th of November; nothing worth notice on the journey.
(Excerpted from King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It by Lyman C. Draper, Cincinnati, 1881, pp. 484-515)