Treaty with the Chickasaw, 1786
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a.k.a Treaty of Hopewell
Jan. 10, 1786. | 7 Stat. 24.
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Vol. II (Treaties)
Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler
Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904
Links to Paragraphs
Indians to restore prisoners and property.
Articles of a treaty, concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee, near Seneca Old Town,
between Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, and Joseph Martin, Commissioners Plenipotentiary
of the United States of America, of the one Part; and Piomingo, Head Warrior and First
Minister of the Chickasaw Nation; Mingatushka, one of the leading Chiefs; and; Latopoia,
first beloved Man of the said Nation, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of all the Chickasaws,
of the other Part.
Acknowledge the protection of United States.
No citizen of United States shall settle on Indian lands.
Indians to deliver up criminals.
Citizens of United States committing crimes against the Indians to be punished.
United States to regulate trade.
Special provision for trade.
Indians to give notice of designs against United States.
Peace and friendship perpetual.
THE Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America give peace to the
Chickasaw Nation, and receive them into the favor and protection of the said States,
on the following conditions:
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the Chickasaw nation, shall restore all the prisoners,
citizens of the United States, to their entire liberty, if any there be in the Chickasaw
nation. They shall also restore all the negroes, and all other property taken during the
late war from the citizens, if any there be in the Chickasaw nation, to such person, and
at such time and place, as the Commissioners of the United States of America shall
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the Chickasaws, do hereby acknowledge the tribes and
the towns of the Chickasaw nation, to be under the protection of the United States of
America, and of no other sovereign whosoever.
The boundary of the lands hereby allotted to the Chickasaw nation to live and hunt on,
within the limits of the United States of America, is, and shall be the following. viz.
Beginning on the ridge that divides the waters running into the Cumberland, from those
running into the Tennessee, at a point in a line to be run north-east, which shall strike
the Tennessee at the mouth of Duck river; thence running westerly along the said ridge, till
it shall strike the Ohio; thence down the southern banks thereof to the Mississippi; thence
down the same, to the Choctaw line or Natches district; thence along the said line, or the line
of the district eastwardly as far as the Chickasaws claimed, and lived and hunted on, the
twenty-ninth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. Thence the said boundary
eastwardly, shall be the lands allotted to the Choctaws and Cherokees to live and hunt on, and
the lands at present in the possession of the Creeks; saving and reserving for the establishment
of a trading post, a tract or parcel of land to be laid out at the lower port of the Muscle
shoals, at the mouth of Ocochappo, in a circle, the diameter of which shall be five miles on the
a _________ river, which post, and the lands annexed
thereto, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall attempt to
settle on any of the lands hereby allotted to the Chickasaws to live and hunt on, such person
shall forfeit the protection of the United States of America, and the Chickasaws may punish him or
not as they please.
If any Indian or Indians, or persons residing among them, or who shall take refuge in their
nation, shall commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any citizen of the
United States, or person under their protection, the tribe to which such offender or
offenders may belong, or the nation, shall be bound to deliver him or them up to be
punished according to the ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled:
Provided, that the punishment shall not be greater, than if the robbery or murder, or
other capital crime, had been committed by a citizen on a citizen.
If any citizen of the United States of America, or person under their protection shall
commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any Indian, such offender or
offenders shall be punished in the same manner as if the robbery or murder or other
capital crime had been committed on a citizen of the United States of America; and
the punishment shall be in presence of some of the Chickasaws, if any will attend at
the time and place, and that they may have an opportunity so to do, due notice,
if practicable of such intended punishment, shall be sent to some one of
It is understood that the punishment of the innocent under the idea of retaliation
is unjust, and shall not be practiced on either side, except where there is a manifest
violation of this treaty; and then it shall be preceded, first by a demand of justice,
and if refused, then by a declaration of hostilities.
For the benefit and comfort of the Indians, and for the prevention of injuries or
oppressions on the part of the citizens or Indians, the
a The name of the river is not in the original.
United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right of
regulating the trade with the Indians, and managing all their affairs in such manner
as they think proper.
Until the pleasure of Congress be known respecting the eighth article, all traders,
citizens of the United States, shall have liberty to go to any of the tribes or towns
of the Chickasaws to trade with them, and they shall be protected in their persons and
property, and kindly treated.
The said Indians shall give notice to the citizens of the United States of America, of any
designs which they may know or suspect to be formed in any neighboring tribe, or by any
person whosoever, against the peace, trade or interests of the United States of America.
The hatchet shall be forever buried, and the peace given by the United States of America,
and friendship re-established between the said States on the one part, and the Chickasaw
nation on the other part, shall be universal, and the contracting parties shall use their
utmost endeavors to maintain the peace given as aforesaid, and friendship re-established.
In witness of all and every thing herein contained, between the said States and Chickasaws,
we, their underwritten commissioners, by virtue of our full powers, have signed this
definitive treaty, and have caused our seals to be hereunto affixed.
Done at Hopewell, on the Keowee, this tenth day of January, in the year of our Lord one
thousand seven hundred and eighty-six.
Benjamin Hawkins, [L. S.]
Andw. Pickens, [L. S.]
Jos. Martin, [L. S.]
Piomingo, his x mark, [L. S.]
Mingatushka, his x mark, [L. S.]
Latopoia, his x mark. [L. S.]
James Cole, Sworn Interpreter.
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