"Goodspeed", part #2 Thanks to Kay    Pacheco for providing this information. 
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Many of the old Revolutionary soldiers settled in Rutherford County 
after the admission of Tennessee into the UNION, on grants from 
the State of North Carolina. Among them may be mentioned the 
JONESes, RUTLEDGEs and others. Many of them became pensioners after the passage of the act of Congress, of 1832, for their relief. In the Creek war of 1812-14, related elsewhere, a large number of troops went from Rutherford County, although it is believed no regularly organized company was sent. Col. HENDERSON, who is accredited to this county, was killed in a skirmish near the city of New Orleans. In the second Seminole war, which broke out in 1836, Rutherford County furnished two companies, Capt. YOAKUM's and Robert JETTON's. These men enlisted under the call for 2,500 men to serve for six months. These men were attached to the Second Regiment, which was organized at Fayetteville, about June 16, 1836, by electing William TROUSDALE, 
colonel; J. C. GUILD, lieutenant-colonel; Joseph MEADOWS, first 
major; William WASHINGTON, second major. These two regiments were formed into a brigade, of which Robert ARMSTRONG was elected brigadier-general. The troops left Fayetteville, the place of rendezvous, on July 4, and proceeded direct to Columbus, Ga. The history of this expedition is given under the second Seminole war. In 1846, on the outbreak of the Mexican war, great numbers offered their services to the State and Government. Two political companies from Rutherford tendered their services at once, the one commanded by Capt. MITCHELL, called the Spring Blues, and the other by Capt. CHILDRESS. The latter only was accepted. These men were not accepted till the second call, and consequently did not see very active service. The sentiment of Rutherford was strongly opposed to secession or separation till the climax of the political issues was reached, when the 
people slowly yielded, and in time became earnest supporters of the 
Confederate Government. The first regiment raised in this county for 
the Confederate service was the Second Tennessee Infantry. The 
regiment was composed of ten companies, averaging 120 men each; 
two of these companies, A and F, were from Rutherford County. 
The captains of Company A were S. N. WHITE, John A. BUTLER, Thomas G. BUTLER and James T. C. McKNIGHT. The captains of company F were Thomas D. WHITE, W D. ROBINSON and William H. NEWMAN. At its first organization William B. BATE was chosen colonel; David L. GOODALL, lieutenant-colonel; William R. DOAK, major. The regiment was organized at Nashville, May 5, and was ordered to Virginia. It was mustered into the Confederate service May 12, at Lynchburg, by Gen. E. Kirby SMITH. The field and staff officers were W. B. BATE and W. D. ROBINSON, colonels; D. L. GOODALL and John A. BUTLER, lieutenant-colonels; William R. DOAK, major; T. J. KENNEDY and Alexander ERSKINE, surgeons; J. H. ERSKINE and T. L. B. BROWN, assistant surgeons; Joseph 
CROSS and G. T. HENDERSON, chaplains; M. W. CLUSKEY and W. H. RHEA, quartermasters; W. T. DRIVER and W. J. HALE, adjutants. The complete account of this regiment is given in the State history. The credit of raising the Eighteenth Regiment is due largely to Gen. J. B. PALMER, of Murfreesboro. At the outbreak of hostilities Maj. PALMER, as he as then called, was engaged in the practice of law at Murfreesboro, and was a man very much opposed to secession, a doctrine which he opposed with all his force and logic. He said, however, if the worst came to the worst he was withhis native State. The determination of Maj. PALMER to volunteer led a vast number of his neighbors and companions to enlist with him.  The following companies were raised, principally in Rutherford County: Maj. Palmer's own company, B G. WOODS' company and B. F. WEBB's company. The history of this regiment is best told in the language of Gen. PALMER himself. The regiment was organized on the 11th of June, 1861, at Camp Trousdale, Tennessee, by the election of J. B. PALMER colonel, A G. CARDEN,  lieutenant-colonel, S W. DAVIS, major. It contained ten companies, commanded respectively by Capt. M. R. RUSHING, J. W. 
ROSCOE, William R. BUTLER, H. J. St. JOHN, G. H. LOWE, B. F. WEBB, J. B. MATTHEWS, B. G. WOODS, A. G. CARDEN and W. J. GRAYSON. Col. PALMER's staff consisted of R. P. CROCKETT, quartermaster, with rank of captain; Thomas WOOD, commissary, with same rank; Dr. John PATTERSON, surgeon; J. W. GOWAN, assistant surgeon; James W. ROSCOE, adjutant, with the rank of first lieutenant; James S. BAXTER, sergeant-major. 

The first battle in which the regiment participated was at Fort 
Donelson, where after much suffering, hard and gallant fighting, it, with the garrison and army under command of Gen.FLOYD, was captured on February 16, 1862. Col. PALMER and other field officers were imprisoned at Fort Warren, Boston, Harbor. The staff and company officers were confined at Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, and the privates at Camp Douglas, Illinois. All the men and officers were exchanged in September, 1862, when the regiment was reorganized by an act of the Confederate Congress. J. B. PALMER was again elected colonel; W B. BUTLER, lieutenant-colonel; W. H. JOYNER, major; John W. DOUGLAS, adjutant. This reorganization took place September 26, 1862, at Jackson, Miss. This regiment from the beginning to the close of the war belonged to the famous command known at part of the time as 
BROWN's, and subsequently as PALMER's brigade; by its latter name it was surrendered at Goldsboro, N. C., May 2, 1865, on the terms agreed upon by Gens. Joe E. JOHNSTON and William T. SHERMAN. As a regiment, it was commanded by its first colonel, 
PALMER, till his promotion to the rank of brigadier-general in 1864. The Eighteenth participated in the great battles of Fort Donelson, Murfreesboro (Stones River), Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. It participated in all the engagements in the Atlanta campaign. It made the campaign into Tennessee after the fall of Atlanta, doing active service at all points. After the defeat of Gen. John B. HOOD before Nashville, this was one of the regiments of PALMER's brigade which, with other choice troops, covered HOOD's retreat from Middle Tennessee across the Tennessee River. This rear guard was under Maj.-Gen. WALTHALL, the ranking officer, and consisted of his own division and brigades of Gens. PALMER and FEATHERSTON and some cavalry forces. After this PALMER's brigade was ordered to 
North Carolina under Gen. JOHNSTON, under whose direction the 
battle of Bentonville, in that State, was fought. In this fight PALMER's brigade was made the directing column, and it distinguished itself so highly as to be handsomely complimented by Gen. STEVENSON, the division commander, in a "general order".  This was the last fight of the Eighteenth. The regiment was discharged in May, 1865, which closed its arduous and brilliant career of patriotic duty and service for a period of a little more than four memorable years. At the battle of Murfreesboro Gen. PALMER, then colonel, was wounded three times; in the celebrated Breckinridge fight on January 2, 1863. He received a Mini- 
ball through the calf of the leg, one through the shoulder, and a shell 
wound on the right knee, thought he did not leave the field till the 
close of the engagement, and then brought off his regiment in good 
order. He was next severely wounded at Chickamauga, from which 
he has never recovered. He was also slightly wounded at Jonesboro 
and at Bentonville. The Twentieth Tennessee Regiment was known as Battle's regiment, and was organized at Camp Trousdale near the 
Kentucky line. Joel A. BATTLE was elected colonel; M. B. CARTER, lieutenant-colonel; Patrick DUFFIE, major; Dr. D. B. CLIFF, surgeon; J. H. MORTON, assistant surgeon, John MARSHALL, quartermaster; M. M. HINKLE, commissary; Alex WINN, adjutant; John EDMONSON, chaplain. The only company from Rutherford in the regiment was Company E. John S. GOOCH was elected captain of the company at the age of nineteen, and was severely wounded at Fishing Creek. At the reorganization of the army in May, Capt. GOOCH was elected lieutenant-colonel at the age of twenty. Col. T. B. SMITH, of the regiment was only twenty-two. Col. GOOCH was compelled to resign in a short time, and as succeeded by F. M. LAVENDER. On the promotion of Col. GOOCH, William RIDLEY was chosen captain of Company E, and remained with the company during its term of service. Capt. RIDLEY received a severe scalp wound at Missionary Ridge; Lieut. CROSSWAITE was killed at Murfreesboro, and Lieut. PEYTON at Chickamauga. A full history of the regiment is given elsewhere. 

Many other companies and parts of companies were recruited in 
Rutherford County, but their history is closely interwoven with other 
regiments. The battle of Murfreesboro began December 31, 1862, 
and ended January 2, 1863. The Confederate forces numbering about 35,000 men were under the command of Gen. BRAGG, whose right was under Gen. BRECKINRIDGE, center under Gen. POLK, and left under Gen. HARDEE. The Federals according to commander ROSECRANS,  numbered 27,977 infantry, 3,200 cavalry and 2,223 artillery. ROSECRANS' right confronting HARDEE, was commanded by Gen. McCOOK, the center by Gen. George H. THOMAS, opposite POLK, and the left, opposite BRECKINRIDGE, was commanded by Gen. T. L. CRITTENDEN. BRAGG anticipating ROSECRANS' intention of attacking his own right, hurled HARDEE with irresistible force upon McCOOK, ROSECRANS' right, and crushed it. By night ROSECRANS had lost, including stragglers, one-fourth his army and a large portion of his artillery. His right wing was almost at right angles to its position in the morning, but it had been so strengthened as to be impossible to drive it further. The battle so far had been largely in favor of the Confederates. January 1 was a day of comparative quiet except occasional artillery duel and some skirmishing. On January 2 skirmishing opened about 8 o'clock and grew warmer as the day advanced; the tide rolled toward the right. At about 3 P. M. the picket firing began, which was the signal for the celebrated charge made by BRECKINRIDGE on the right. Perhaps no more gallant charge is recorded in history than this one led by BRECKINRIDGE and his gallant subordinates. They swept everything before them, crossed the river and seemed ready to crush ROSECRANS' left, as had been done by his right, but he had skillfully massed fifty-eight pieces of artillery heavily supported by infantry. Upon this unseen enemy the troops rushed, but were compelled to fall back with much loss. The night was passed with anxious watching, the following day BRAGG slowly began to fall back, leaving the field in the hands of the Federals. BRAGG's 
loss was reported by him at 10,000; ROSECRANS' loss was 1,533 
killed, 7,245 wounded, besides 6,273 prisoners. On the ground where the battle was fought is now a National cemetery, where were gathered the dead bodies from the various points and buried there. The number thus buried amount to about 6,000. Near Murfreesboro is a Confederate cemetery, where now sleep 2,000 Confederate soldiers. 

The city of Murfreesboro was founded by an act of the General Assembly passed October 17, 1811, although no lots were purchased nor houses erected until in June, 1812. The town was originally called Cannonsburg, in honor of Gov. CANNON, but by an act of November 19, 1811, amendatory to the act of October 17, 1811, the name was changed to "Murfreesboro." This name was given in honor of Col. Hardy MURFREE, who was a Revolutionary soldier and held lands in the vicinity under military grant from North Carolina. His claim as well as many others, were signed by Richard Dobbs SPAIGHT, Esq., our governor, captain-general, and commander-in-chief;" such an array it would seem would make the title perfect. As is elsewhere mentioned, Joel CHILDRESS, Joel DYER, John M. TILFORD, Abraham THOMPSON, CARMICHAEL, B. SANAWAY and Blackman COLEMAN, were appointed commissioners (aldermen) of Murfreesboro. These constituted the first town board or council, the former commissioners having nothing to do with the government. The above act as repealed, September 28, 1815, and seven commissioners were chosen by the people. Previous to this, November 5, 1813, the 
election precinct at Black Fox Camp was ordered moved to Murfreesboro. On November 19, 1813, all money in the hands of the commissioners from the sale of lots, after paying these expenses, was ordered turned over to the town board for the benefit of the town. The act incorporating the town of Murfreesboro passed the General Assembly October 17, 1817. It was declared that the citizens of the town of Murfreesboro, of the county of Rutherford and the State of Tennessee were a body corporate and politic with authority to sue and be sued, etc. The town was organized with a mayor and aldermen. Annual elections were ordered to be called by the sheriff of the first Monday in January. On October 13, 1818, Isaac HILLIARD and Mary MOORE, his wife, of Halifax County, N. C., legatees of Col. Hardy MURFREE, deeded Lots 46 to 70 inclusive, except Lots. 53 and 65, to the "Citizens, owners and Occupiers of certain Lotts or parcels of land" in the town of Murfreesboro. This was done for a love of the people of the place, a desire to make their titles perfect and for the remembrance of Col.MURFREE in the name. On December 26, 1837, Isaac HILLIARD's enlargement was incorporated, containing Lots 1 to 24 
inclusive. A further addition was made to the city January 10, 1851. On December 6, 1860, Bennett SMITH deeded a lot near the Presbyterian Church to the city. On December 12, 1865, the city limits were extended three-quarters of a mile from the Public Square. Town officers: The first town officers elected were Joshua HASKELL, mayor, but he resigned and David WENDEL was chosen in his place; Burrell GANNAWAY, Nicholas TILFORD, T. C. WATKINS, William BARFIELD, Charles NILES and G. A. SUBLETT, aldermen; William LEDBETTER, recorder; Benjamin BLANKENSHIP, town constable. Other mayors, David WENDEL, 1819; Robert PURDY, 1820; Henry HOLMES, 1821; William R. RUCKER, 1822-23; John JONES, 1824; William LEDBETTER, 1825; S. R. RUCKER, 1826; William 
LEDBETTER, 1827; John SMITH, 1828; Edward FISHER, 1829; 
John SMITH, 1830; John C. MOORE, 1831; Charles READY, 1832; Charles NILES, 1833; Marman SPENCE, 1834-35; Edward FISHER, 1836; L. H. CARNEY, 1837; E. A. KEEBLE, 1838; Edward FISHER, 1839; G. A. SUBLETT, 1840; B. W. FARMER, 1841-42; H. YOAKUM, 1843; Wilson THOMAS, 1844; B. W. FARMER, 1845-46; John LEIPER, 1847-48; Charles READY, 1849-53; F. HENRY, 1854; E A KEEBLE, 1855; Joseph B. PALMER, 1856-59; John W. BURTON, 1860-61; J. E. DROMGOOLE, 1862; * * * R. D. REED, 1865-55; Charles READY, 1867; E. L. JORDAN, 1868-69; T. B. DARRACH, 1870; J A. JANUARY, 1871; J. B. COLLIER, 1872-73; Dr. J. B.  MURFREE, 1874-75; H. H. KERR, 1876; H. H. CLAYTON, 1877; N. C. COLLIER, 1878-79; J. C. CLAYTON, 1880-84; E. F. BURTON, 1882-83; J. M. OVERALL, 1885-85, H. E.PALMER, 1886. Police officers: A. G. MILLER, City Marshal; G. W. MYERS, R. E. BEARD and R. M. NELSON. The town as originally surveyed by Hugh ROBINSON, contained seventy lots each 150 feet square, being numbered from the northwest corner to 
the northeast from one to twelve inclusive. The Legislature passed 
eighteen rules and regulations to govern the town while under the first 
town board. In 1815 the General Assembly passed an act for the relief of the seven commissioners of Murfreesboro against any claims that might arise against them while they were discharging their official duties. Capt. William LYTLE built a mill, blacksmith shop and afterward a cotton-gin near Murfreesboro in 1808. The first house was built within the corporate limits of the town in 1811. A. CARMICHAEL built the first tavern in Murfreesboro near the "Pump Spring." Col. Joel DYER moved his tavern from Jefferson to Murfreesboro in 1812; this building stood till burned in 1854. Col. Robert JETTON built a tavern on South Main Street of cedar logs, that stood till burned in 1853. J. RENSHAW also built a tavern near the southeast corner of the Public Square. PORTER & SPENCE moved their dry goods store from Jefferson to Murfreesboro in 1813. The town was now growing rapidly. A public warehouse was built near the creek on Main Street in 1813. All cotton and tobacco had to be placed in some one of the three houses in the county for inspection before sale. W. A. SUBLETT and L. MATHEWS were made inspectors in 1813. The fees for opening and recooperage was about $1.50 per hogshead for tobacco and cotton in a similar ratio. 
On November 15, 1817, J. HASKELL deeded Lots 71 and 72 to 
Bradley Academy. In 1818 the market house was built, which, with some improvement stood till destroyed by the soldiers. Hugh CABELL was made sealer of weights and measures for the town and county. The rates fixed were for a bushel measure 50 cents; pecks, 15 cents; half peck, 12-1/2 cents; gallon, half gallon and two quarts, 25 cents. In 1818 the town well was ordered begun, but was not finished till 1824; owing to a destructive fire all wooden chimneys were ordered pulled down, and brick or stone substituted instead. Also a fire-watch of twelve men were put on duty. The SUBLETTs were allowed $98 for printing the town ordinances in 1818. Stumps were ordered removed from the streets. Few buildings at this time were adorned with paint. The first brick house erected in town was built this year by John M. TELFORD, west of where the present National Bank now stands. Drs. W. R. RUCKER, James MANEY, Henry HOLMES, J. KING and L. P. YANDELL were distinguished early practitioners. Lawyers - S. H. LAUGHLIN, Samuel ANDERSON, S. R. RUCKER, W. BRADY, Andrew CHILDRESS, J. R. MARTIN, Charles READY, John BRUCE, John HASKELL, P. W. HUMPHREYS and I. H. BUTE. Visiting attorneys - Rob BUTLER, John BELL, J. H. EATON, Andrew 
JACKSON and Felix GRUNDY. Merchants - David WENDEL, Joe SPENCE, HILL, SNELL & Co., M. SPENCE, Silas LOIK, C. O'FLYNN, C. R. ABBOTT, FALLS & Christy, David LINEAU, John SMITH, J. C. MOORE & Co., J. CURRIN, Benjamin ELDER and Charles GUGGER. Saddlers - Charles NILES, W. GARDNER, A. S. & J. DAVIDSON. Tailors - Reuben BOLLES, Peter CAMPBELL, Samuel PARRISH, Samuel JONES. Hatters - Alfred MILLER, A. STALLER, Christopher HIST. Cabinet-makers - James CRICHLOW, Ed FISHER, Samuel PATTON. Chair-makers - E. A. COCHRAN, Isaac C. BROWN Carpenters - Capt. J. JONES, George ANDERSON, J. McDERMOTT. Blacksmiths - William GILLIAM, John KENNEDY, William BLANTON, P. PARKER. Boot and 
shoe-makers - Willis BARKER, B. KENNEDY, J. JONES. Tanners - V. COWAN, Rob JETTON, J. BONE. Wagon-makers  - William R. ICEMEYER, J. D. SCRAPE.  Tinner - Lewis SPERRY. Tavern- keepers - James VAUGHN, R. SMITH, Gen. Robert PURDY, W. C. EMMETT. Gunsmiths - Ed ELAM, George BALTES. Brick and Plasterers - J. FLETCHER, T. MONTAGUE. Jewelers - A. LIDDON, who made the county seal, and W. MANCHESTER. Milliners - Mrs. A. STALLER, Miss S. WARREN. Wool-carder - Isaac C. BROWN. 

The first General Assembly met in Knoxville May 28, 1797, and continued to meet there till 1813, when it changed to Nashville and remained till September 15, 1815, at which time it again assembled at Knoxville, but was changed to Murfreesboro September 19, 1819. It 
continued to meet at Murfreesboro till early in January, 1826, since 
which time its sessions have been in Nashville. The bill for fixing a 
permanent seat of government was called up October 4, 1843. The 
vote at the third reading in the House stood: Yeas, 40; nays, 34. In the Senate, on motion of Senator W. H. SNEED, for Rutherford and Williamson Counties, the vote on the question of locating the state capital at Murfreesboro stood eleven for and fourteen against. On reconsideration October 10, 1843, the bill was carried in favor of Nashville. During the session while in Murfreesboro the Assembly met 
in the court house, the representatives using the lower floor and the senators the upper floor. A call session was held August, 1822, 
but the court house having been burned, the session was held in the 
Presbyterian Church; the lower house met on the first floor and the 
Senate in the gallery. On the assembly of the Legislature at this place, Gov. McMINN took his seat as governor, and James McDOWELL was elected doorkeeper. During the session of 1823 Gen. William BRADY was chosen speaker of the House. The acts were printed on a press owned by the State. This was brought from Nashville, and the work was done in a house on College Street. The year 1823 marked 
the first appearance of a "Dutchman" - HOFFMAN by name - into the town. He was a baker by trade, and the novelty of the man was as 
great as the ginger cakes he sold.  Another historic character of this period was Peter JENNINGS, a free negro, who had served during 
the Revolutionary war, and for such service was awarded a pension. 
At this period Murfreesboro afforded two military companies, one of seventy-five men, the Murfreesboro Volunteers, commanded by Capt. G S CROCKETT; the other, the Murfreesboro Sentinels, commanded by Capt. Russel DANCE, afterward by J. C. ABBOT, and still later 
by Capt. John CHILDRESS. The former company took part in the reception given to Gen. LAFAYETTE at Nashville in 1825. A great semi-centennial celebration was held July 4, 1826, at Murfree's Spring under the auspices of the Sentinels, there was a parade by the company, and speeches made by M. ROOKER and others. A committee visited the Hermitage, and invited the hero of New Orleans to visit here in 
Murfreesboro on January 15, 1828, the thirteenth anniversary of the battle of New Orleans. The invitation was accepted. Dr. William R 
RUCKER was president on this occasion, and G A. SUBLETT, 
vice-president. Great preparations were made, and a large and 
enthusiastic assembly greeted him. A magnificent banquet was spread, and the beauty and chivalry of the place did honor to the occasion. Thirteen regular toasts were drank, and responded to with grace; twenty-four additional were offered. A poem was prepared and read 
for the occasion. "There was a sound of revelry by night," and the reception closed with a magnificent ball. At this time the population of Murfreesboro was 955, and the revenues for the town was $355.81. 
In 1831 the Washington Cotton Factory was started by Mr. LOWERY; this had a horse head-wheel for motive power. From the success of this a new company was formed, consisting of Messrs. MASTERSON, CHRISTY, LOWERY & JOHNSON. A large second-hand engine and machinery was placed in position, the whole at a cost of about $25,000. It was an unfortunate financial investment. It soon passed into the hands of Dr. James MANEY, then to --- & WATSON, next to MOORE & COX, and then to FIELD for $4,000. William Somerhall purchased the entire business for $1,500. In 1833 a report was made to the city council on the feasibility of establishing a system of water-works. A 
favorable report was made and the estimated cost was $1,000. It was proposed to raise the water from the Sand Spring in large tubs, to be conveyed to the top of Capitol Hill upon a wooden railway; the same to be elevated by horse-power. The water was to be led from Capitol Hill, by cedar tubes, into an air-tight tank in the court-yard square; thence, 
by hydrants, to the places of business. The work was completed and 
the Rose Water-Works were set in operation. After a short time they were found to be a failure. The first drug store was started by H. H. TREADAWAY, on the east side of the square, in 1837; another was soon after started by AVENT & CARNEY, which was afterward 
sold to J. H.NELSON. The first grocery store was started by Jacob DECKER in 1837; a large carriage factory was started the same year by H.OSBORN & Co. Other jewelers than those mentioned were F. 
William ROULET and J. LUKINS. In 1850 a new drug store was 
started by John McDERMOTT; a hardware and grocery store, by 
John C. SPENCE; a book store, by R. D. REED; a second book 
store was owned by CRAIG & FLETCHER, which was sold to 
FOWLER & DAVIS. The livery stables at this time were owned by 
TODD & CARNAHAN, TODD & BARKLEY. A carriage shop 
was run by R. & S. SMITH. The Cedar Bucket Factory was started 
by J. C. SPENCE in 1854. The Rio Mills were erected in 1855 by 
W. S. HUGGINS & Co. The building was a large four-story brick, 
and was run by two twenty-five horse-power engines, and had a 
capacity of about 200 barrels of flour per day. The whole cost about 
$25,000. These mills were sold to William SPENCE, who, in 1860, 
added a distillery, and at this place fed many hogs. These mills were 
used by the armies during the war and were greatly damaged. 1855 
was noted for the great fire in this city, in which the City Hotel, as 
well as many other buildings, was burned. The first gas-works were 
built in this city in 1857. Mains were laid and the business was started 
by making gas from resin oil and cotton seed, but, the war interfering, the matter was not fully tested. The war made Murfreesboro a great military camp. The troops enlisted were usually sent to Camp Trousdale for instruction. The first appearance of Federals in the place was March 7, 1862, and on the 10th Gen.MITCHELL took formal possession of the place. July 13, 1862, he made his celebrated raid upon the town, capturing a large number of prisoners. This strange coincident occurred during the engagement:  In the attack upon Mancy Springs 21 Federals were killed and no Confederates; in the attack upon the court house 23 Confederates were killed and no Federals; in the fight at the river 2 on each side were killed. After the battle of Stone River the city was again in the hands of Federals, they having taken possession January 4, 1863. 
All the churches and the colleges were used as hospitals for the sick and wounded, first by the Confederate, afterward by the Federal Army. In 1866 the Cedar Bucket Factory passed into the hands of  the Stones River Utility Works. It was started in the old cotton factory, but has since moved to its present building. April 15, 1869, marks the era of the "great fire," in which a large number of business houses were destroyed. 

Business of 1870: 
A. CROCKET; and Planters, W. A. RAPP. Dry goods - ROSENTHAL & Bro., T. C. GOODRICH, E. ROSENFELD, W. SMITH, J. ALLEN, MILES & McKINLEY, RICH & WRIGHT, EAGLETON & BYRN, TOBIAS & BRO. and A. G. ROSENFELD. Drug stores - J. McDERMOTT, J. W. NELSON and William WENDEL. Bakers and confectioners - H. RAYMOND, G. S. McFADDEN and H. OSBORN. Saddlers and harness-makers - John KELLEY, MOSBY & Co. and J. H. BOEHMS. Grocers - L. BURGSDORF, LANE & CRICHLOW, J. S. McFADDEN, J. I. C. HAYNES, Henry ELLIOTT, James TOMPKINS, COLLIER & EAGLETON, JAMES & COLLIER, R. N. RANSOM,