Madison Co. TN
MADISON COUNTY lies on the plateau or slope between the basin of the Tennessee and the Mississippi. It is at the headwaters of the Forked Deer, and lies near the watershed between the two large rivers above named. The surface of the county in general is level or undulating. This is particularly the case in the center and toward the north and the west. To find rolling or broken lands, the east and south, where the surface is quite broken, must be looked to.
The streams of the county are all comparatively small, shallow and sluggish. With the exception of Big Black and Clover Creeks, which are tributaries of the Hatchie, the streams all belong to the Forked Deer system. Middle Fork, of Forked Deer, enters the county from Carroll near the northeast corner of the county, and passes southwesterly through the county and enters Gibson County about sixteen miles northwest from Jackson. South Fork, of Forked Deer, enters what was the southeast corner of the county, and passes in a western direction out of the county. Little Middle Fork enters Madison at a little south of the center on the eastern line of the county, and unites with South Fork about four miles east of Jackson. Greer Creek is a small tributary of Little Middle Fork. Turkey, Jones, Johnson and Cub Creeks are tributaries of South Fork. Dyer Creek, which rises about two miles north of Jackson, empties into Middle Fork of Forked Deer River. From their shallow beds these streams are subject to frequent overflows. Mill sites have been established on the more favorable of these streams since the organization of the county.
The soil of the county is generally of a dark color, having a mixture of clay and sand. In the northern and western sections it is more of a yellowish tinge, while in the southern and eastern sections it has a reddish tinge, owing to the admixture of iron oxides. The main body of the county rests on beds of orange sand. The formations are all comparatively recent, no portion reaching as far back as the silurian, and is largely of alluvial formation. As would be expected the soil is generally very productive, and stands drought and other extremes remarkably well. In consequence of sluggish streams, alluvial beds and vegetable sediment, there are considerable malarial troubles in the summer and fall, but these are not generally of a serious character. The character of the soil does not indicate any great deal of mineral wealth, as almost the entire formation is of the quaternary period, and consequently too modern for the carbonaceous, argillaceous or auriferous deposits, although ferruginous sandstones are found in some parts of the county, near which are some chalybeate springs.
Although formerly well supplied with timber there is now no great abundance for export. Formerly there were large quantities of poplar (Lyriodendron tulipfera), but its great value led to its destruction in a great measure. Perhaps the most valuable timber now left is the oak (Quercus). There are several varieties of the oak, which need no description, such as the white oak (Quercus alba), black oak (Quercus tinetoria), post oak (Quercus obtusiloba) and the black (Jack) oak (Quercus nigra). There are also large quantities of hickory (Carya) of several varieties, consisting of the common hickory (Carya tormentosa), the scaly bark hickory (Carya alba) and other varieties. There are the elm (Ulmus), the gum (Nyssa), both the sweet (Liquidamber styraciflua) and the black (Nyssa aquatica) or tupello, the beech (Fagus ferruginea), the ash (Fraxinus), maple (Acer), mulberry (Morus), black walnut (Juglans nigra), and many other of the less valuable timbers.
Though well suited for a wide variety of products the lower portions of the lands are devoted to the growth of cotton. A very heavy yield of this staple is obtained. The cereals are grown only to a limited extent. Vegetables grow well; the sandy character of the soil renders it well suited for the growth of all of the tuberous character. Timothy and clover do well, and thus render stock raising profitable. More of a mixed farming would doubtless yield a more certain and better income to husbandmen. The excellent facilities for transportation to the best markets are rapidly developing the industries of the county.
Madison County has an area of about 531 square miles, and an elevation of 400 feet above the sea. The first settlers of the County were mainly from Middle Tennessee; these, however, had come originally from Virginia and North Carolina, some from South Carolina. On the extinguishment of the titles of the Chickasaw Indians, in 1818-21, these pioneers, moved by the feelings that "westward the course of empire takes its way," soon again started to find new homes. The constant streams from the older States, pouring into and through Middle Tennessee, carried with them many who had found homes in the rich lands of Middle Tennessee. Moved by the restless tide of emigration, and incited by the rich fields in West Tennessee now unoccupied, many fell in with the current and were carried westward. In a few years after the opening of the country for settlement almost the entire portion of West Tennessee was covered with toiling thousands of a busy throng. Since the tide all originated from the same place the character of the people was very much alike. The intelligence, refinement, courteous bearing, high moral integrity, found in the Carolinas and Virginia, had their counterpart here. Closely related by marriage, social and business relations, the people of Tennessee have maintained their individual characteristics larger and more distinct than most any other people. There is here a homogeneity that is quite foreign to the Northern and Western States.
The first settlers came to Madison County in 1819-20. Adam R. Alexander, who had charge of the land office for the Tenth District, settled about two miles northwest of Jackson. His place was formerly called Alexandria. He not only held the land office, but was also a justice of the peace. Robert H. Dyer, who was one of the first justices, also settled not far from Alexander’s place. Joseph Lynn, one of the commissioners for the organization of the county opened a farm about three niles west of Jackson. John T. Porter, one of the first commissioners, after the organization became the first register of the county. He lived near South Fork about three miles west of Jackson. Near Porter lived James Brown. Near Alexandria lived J. H. Raygin, a brother-in-law of Alexander. About five miles west of Jackson, beyond South Fork, James Cockrell settled with his family in September, 1821. W. G. Cockrell, his son, is now the efficient county superintendent. On the south side of Forked Deer were Frank Herron, Henning Pace and Benjamin Blythe; also Foster and Richard Golden, whose place was put in nomination for the county seat. On Johnson Creek were I3onj nun Blythe, before mentioned, John and James McClish, Wm. Cooper, Nathaniel Robinson and Thomas Lacey. In the vicinity of Denmark, Thomas and Richard Sanders settled in 1822. Col. Williamson settled on Big Black some time during the same year. James M. Jelks settled northwest of Jackson in 1821. In the same neighborhood were time Mitchells and others. In a short time there was a settlement sufficient for a school. A log school-house was built in that neighborhood in 1822, which was standing a few years ago. A man named Tyner was the pioneer teacher.
Some time in 1820 Mr. Wear settled in the northeast part of the county, where he planted his first crop. In the vicinity of Cotton Grove were John Hardgrove, who was one of the commissioners of Jackson, the two McIvers, Duncan and Roderick, Elijah Jones, John and Thomas Brown, William Woodfork, an early magistrate, Stephen Cypert, George Todd and ______ Vaulx. Adam Huntsman, the well known one-legged lawyer, lived about four miles east of Jackson; Nathan Deberry about the same distance. Wm. E. Butler, the well known trader and influential citizen, settled near the spring, where the water-works now stand, in 1819 or 1820. John McNairy, Joseph Phillips and Wm. E. Butler owned the lands east of Market Street, on which the city of Jackson now stands. The land lying immediately west of Market Street was owned by Thomas Shannon. James Trousdale settled between Jackson and Denmark in 1822. Charles Sevier, who was a hatter by trade, lived at first near Jackson, but afterward moved to the south side of the South Fork of Forked Deer River. Jacob Hill also settled south of the river. John Montgomery, Martin Lawrence, Lewis and Moses Needham, Francis Taylor, Jacob Thomas, Wm. Davis and John Tidwell all settled north of Jackson. In addition to these the following had settled in the county before 1824: Herndon and Vincent Haralson, Samuel Taylor, Wm. Atchison, George White, John Fare, or Farr, Elijah Jones, Wm. H. Doak, Henry L. Coulter, Smith Sullivan, Guy Smith, James Dollard, Zachariah Thomas, Wm. Davis, David Jernigen, James Caldwell, Nathan Simpson, C. C. Collier, Z. B. McCoy, Gabriel Chandler, S. D. Waddel, George Gentry, Wm. Harrison, Wm. Harris, Jacob Bradberry, David Jarrett, Rufus P. King, Wm. C. Love, Martin Cartmell, J. B. Hogg, Hazael Hewett, Michael Murchison, James Greer, David Ferguson, Bartholomew G. Stewart, J. S. Caruthers, Wm. Wilborn, H. L. Gray, Thomas Boling, James McDaniel, James Epps, William Witherspoon, William Harper, Cullen Lane, ______ Exum, William Stephens and Phillip Alson.
Capt. Bates, now of the Sixteenth District, is said to have assisted in building the first court house in 1822. The first marriage in the county was between B. S. Jones and Canada H. Curtis. The ceremony was performed by A. B. Alexander, January 1, 1822. Samuel Jones, son of Elijah Jones, is said to have been the first child born in the county. ______ Robertson, born at the house of Charles Sevier during a temporary sojourn of the parents, was the first child born in Jackson. A daughter of Samuel Swan, a small grocer, was the first female child. Jesse Russel came to the county in January, 1823, and his marriage, which occurred a few months afterward, was the first marriage in Jackson. Robert Russell, son of Jesse, was the first male child of a permanent resident. John Brown, a prominent lawyer of Jackson, son of Dr. John F. Brown, is but a few months younger than Rob. Russell. Col. Robt. I. Chester, born in North Carolina in 1793, came to Washington County in 1796, and to Madison County in 1823. He is still vigorous at ninety-four.
The early settlers had few of the luxuries of life, but plenty of the substantial things. Corn furnished most of the "staff of life." This was eaten as hominy, or made into meal, by beating in a mortar, grinding in a hand-mill, or a small water-mill. James Cockrell brought the first hand-mill to the county in September, 1821 This served not only for his own family, but also for his neighbors. One of the Jameses built the first mill on Wallick Creek, near Cotton Grove, in 1821. This mill had a capacity of five bushels per day, or ten bushels in twenty-four hours. A. R. Alexander built a mill on his land in 1822; Duncan McIver one on his land on Jones Creek, and Ezekiel McCoy one on Trace Creek, also in 1822. In 1823 George W. Still built a mill on his forty acre tract, on Trace Creek, Clark Spencer one on Cane Creek, T. J. Hardeinan one on Pleasant Run, Obediah Mix one on Jones Creek, and Gabriel Chandler one on Young Creek; Col. Williamson built his mill on Big Black in February, 1823, and Newsom’s mill, on Meredith Creek, was built in 1824. The rapid increase of population at this time brought about a rapid increase in the number of mills.
One of the Joneses built the first ferry, called Jones’ Ferry, on South Fork, within the limits of the county, in 1820-21. This was west of Jackson. A ferry was established on South Fork, at Shannon’s Landing, by Thomas Shannon, in 1822, also one on South Fork, by J. G. Caruthers, in the same year. A ferry was established by John Murray, on the Hatchie, on his lands, in 1822, and one at Hatchie Bluff, by Wilson Jones. Ordinaries were opened by John Beding and Robert H. Dyer at their respective houses in 1822. The privilege of keeping an ordinary implied the privilege of selling liquors. Trade was carried on by wagon from Nashville or by keel-boats, by way of the Forked Deer River. These boats brought flour, meat, coffee, sugar, domestics, etc., and carried away produce of various kinds. Barney Mitchell was for a long time owner of the principal line of boats. Newson perhaps brought the first boat, as he is known to have navigated South Fork in the spring of’ 1822. The corn crop of 1821 did not mature well, in consequence of which most of the bread stuff of that year had to be imported. It may proper to remark here that little of Madison County’s great staple cotton was raised during the first decade of its history, from the fact that it did not mature well. The virgin soil kept it growing too late without forcing it to maturity.
A short distance west of Jackson are several circular mounds of the usual form peculiar to Mound Builders. Near Pinson, in the southeast portion of the county on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad are several mounds of immense size. The highest of these is seventy-two feet in height and is of the usual conical shape. There are several others, fifty or more feet in height; some are almost perfect cones, others are frusta of cones, and one presents the frustum of a pentagonal pyramid, with sides severity or more feet. In connection with these may be seen an old earthwork or earthworks. It consists of a ditch and an embankment, the embankment being from two to five feet in height. In some places two distinct embankments are to be seen extensively in parallel directions. The mounds consist of earthwork entirely and have been constructed of surface soil entirely. These mounds indicate that they have been built for defenses, for observatories or for sacred and sepulchral purposes. None but a few of the smaller ones have ever been examined with any care. Hon. J. G. Cisco, of the Forked Deer Blade, who is quite an antiquarian and who has an excellent collection of Indian relics, has made an examination of some of the smaller mounds and has been rewarded with a large number of arrow-heads, some excellent specimens of pottery and bones, skulls and other specimens of human remains. Charred remains, sticks, coals, bones are the usual relics of the sepulchral mounds. A scientific investigation, by some skillful antiquarian, of these mounds would doubtless reveal some rich pages of the history of a very peculiar people. A systematic boring and tunneling would amply repay the expenditure. A small appropriation each year expended under the direction of the State geologist, would add an immense treasure to Tennessee’s archeological collection, which is being destroyed every year by the unlettered, or carried away by relic hunters from other States.
Madison County occupies almost the exact center of the western division of Tennessee. It is bounded on the north by Crockett, Gibson and Carroll Counties; on the east by Henderson and Chester; on the south by Chester and Hardeman; on the west by Haywood and Crockett Counties. It embraces an area of 340,000 acres.
The treaty of 1818 with the Chickasaw Indians allowed them the use of their lands as hunting grounds for two years, in consequence of which the settlements were not so rapid until after the limits of the treaty had expired. On November 9, 1821, the General Assembly at Murfreesboro passed an act providing for the organization of the western district into counties. It was under this act that Madison, Henry, Carroll and Henderson were created, but Madison was not finally organized till December 17, 1821. On Monday, December 17, 1821, the following commissioners met at the house of Adam B. Alexander, who lived about two miles west of Jackson, at what is now called the McClanahan farm, and who at the time was register of the laud office for the tenth surveyor’s district: B. Bartholomew, G. Stewart, David Jarrett, William Atchison, Rob. H. Dy___, John Thomas, Adam B. Alexander. Duncan McTver, Joseph Lynn, James Trousdale, Herndon Haralson, William Braden, Samuel Taylor and William Woodfork. The first step in the organization was the appointment of Robert Hughes. clerk, pro tem. The permanent officers then chosen were Boderick McIver, clerk; Thomas Shannon, sheriff; Herndon Haralson, chairman; John I. Porter, register; James Brown, ranger, and William Atchison, trustee. These men constituted the first county court. Joseph Lynn, Bartholomew Stewart and James Trousdale, with A. B. Alexander and John Hardgrove, in case of failure of the other parties, were selected by the General Assembly to determine the site for a seat of justice for the county, with power to erect public buildings. The places put in nomination were A. B. Alexander’s place, Golden Station, three miles south of Jackson, and Jackson. The present site was agreed on May 19, 1822.
The court met at Alexander’s residence until the September term 1822, when the first court house was ready for occupancy. This house was erected by John Houston for which he was allowed $135. This house stood on the square near the northeast corner and was a log building, one story high, covered with clapboards resting on ridge poles. This building was about 30x40 feet and stood till 1824-25, when the rapidly increasing population seemed to justify a new court house. The second house was a brick building two stories in height and about the same dimensions otherwise as the former house. This building was erected by Benjamin Ghohson in the fall and winter of 1824-25. In addition to the court house, offices were erected on the square for the county officers. The county court clerk’s office and registry office stood at the northeast corner of the square and the circuit clerk’s office was at the southwest corner of the square. The court house was not a substantial building, and it became necessary to tear it down and erect a larger and more substantial building. Steps were taken as early as 1837 to erect the new building, but it was not till 1839 that the building was well under way. The committee consisted of J. W. Campbell, David Thompshire, Granberry Anderson, J. L. Talbot, Thomas Connally, Wm. Croan, B. W. May, I. W. Herron, James Caruthers, Wyatt Mooring and Samuel Lancaster. The contract was let to Thomas Brown, who was assisted by his brother, Robert Brown, who still resides in Jackson. The brick work was done by John and Thomas Norville, and the other work by the Browns. The dome and some of the painting were not completed till 1845. In 1839 the courts met at rooms at the Lafayette Inn, rents being charged for the same at $250 per year. The federal court met at the Presbyterian Church. The court house is a two-story building and is about 50x60 feet. It contains rooms for all the county offices, and a room for the various courts of the county, as well as a supreme court room. This building was erected at a total cost of about $25,000, and is in an excellent state of preservation.
On November 23, 1883, the United States Government purchased the block on the corner of Market and Baltimore Streets, for the purpose of erecting thereon a government building, to be used as a postoffice, federal court room, etc. The block was known as the "McCorry Block." Deeds were made by H. W. and C. A. McCorry, Wm. A. Barnhill and wife, Caroline Barnhill, et al., S. J. Caruthers and J. W. Gates, to the United States Government for the aggregate sum of $7,000. The building is about 50x60 feet. It is of the most approved architecture and finish. It is built of brick resting on a stone basement. The streets on its fronts are paved with fine curbing, and the lot enclosed by an iron fence. The entire cost of the building and fixtures amounts to about $100,000. It is by far the finest building in the city of Jackson.
The first public road ordered to be cut out in the county, was one to lead from the court house, to meet a contemplated road to be opened from the office (surveyor’s), in the Ninth District, on the line of the county, near the northeast corner of Section 8, Range 2, by way of Duncan Melver’s Mill on Jones Creek. The committee consisted of Duncan Mclver, Herndon Haralson, George Todd, Byland Chandler, Vincent Haralson and Boderick Melver. This order was passed December 19, 1819. On March 18, 1822, B. G. Stewart, Frances Taylor, Thomas Jones, Samuel Taylor and Jacob Bradberry, were ordered to open a road from the court house by way of the Forked Deer Postoffice and Francis Taylor’s mill toward the center of Carroll County. At the same time Guy Smith, H. L. Gray, J. G. Caruthers, David Ferguson, J. B. Hogg, Moses Oldhain and James Trousdale, were to open a road from where the above struck the Madison line along the ridge by way of Robert H. Dyer’s and Caruthers’ Ferry, the nearest route to McGuire’s Ferry on Big Hatchie. Ezekiel A. McCoy, Duncan Mclver, Wm. E. Butler, Vincent Haralson, Gabriel Chandler, Moses Wilson, Wm. Wilson, Martin Cartmelh, John Jones, Hazael Hewett and Byland Chandler were ordered at the same time to open the road from Jackson to the seat of Henderson County (Lexington). In September, 1822, the road leading from the "town of Alexandria" (i. e. Alexander’s land office), was opened by D. Horton, Stokely D. Hays, Wm. H. Doak, Wm. E. Butler, John Harrison and Arthur F. Gray, to connect with the landing on the south fork of the Forked Deer River. Wm. Braden, Adam B. Alexander, J. G. Caruthers, Joel Dyer, J. T. Porter, David Jarrett, H. L. Gray, Thomas Bohing and Guy Smith, were to open the road to Middle Fork. James Trousdale, N. J. Hay, Andrew Hay, Wm. Espy, James Tidwell, James Poor and George Meazler, were to open the road from Alexandria to Harrison’s Bluff. The importance of having good communication between the different parts of the county was grasped at an early day, and the work accomplished without delay. The McClanahan Levee road, which leads from Jackson to Somerville, across the south fork of Forked Deer, was built by Dickens and Garrett in about 1835. This was a toll road, and for a time paid large dividends. The Chester Levee was named in honor of Col. B. I. Chester, who aided largely in its construction. Campbell’s Levee was built at a later date, and leads from Jackson to Brownsville. All three of these roads are now under control of the county, by which they are kept in repair.
In 1852 aid from Madison County was asked for the construction of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. In April of that year the county court, by a large majority, voted $100,000 stock to assist in the enterprise. Warrants to the amount of $50,000 were to be issued in 1856 and $50,000 in 1857. John C. M. Garland was made tax collector for the road. He was bound in the sum of $100,000 for the faithful performance of his duty, with Stephen Miller, A. S. Rogers, W. B. Collier, Hiram Johnson and George A. Connally as sureties. New tax collectors were appointed from year to year, as the bonds became due. The road was completed in due time after the issuance of the bonds. The Illinois Central was built a few years later than the Mobile & Ohio, and a few years ago was leased by the present company. It is a main thoroughfare from New Orleans to St. Louis and Chicago. The Brownsville & Jackson Railroad was chartered in September, 1882, by Napoleon Hill, W. H. Moore, Lois Hanamer, J. C. Neeley, J. B. Bond and W. P. Dunavant. It is intended to connect Brownsville, Haywood County, with Jackson, Madison County. The Ohio Valley Railroad was chartered in 1886, by J. W. Allison, J. L. Wisdom, W. P. Robertson, E. S. Mallory, of Madison, and .J. J. Head, of Henry County. It is intended to connect some point on the northern line of the State with some point in Hardeman or McNairy, and to pass through the intermediate counties.
The first jail was ready for occupancy in December, 1822. This building stood south of the court house and was erected, at a cost of $95, by Samuel Shannon. In February, 1825, this old jail was offered for sale and a new one erected. The second one stood till about 1885, when a new brick jail was erected on the lot near where the present jail stands. In 1840 John Norville, Robert W. May and John Irvin were appointed a committee to improve and repair said jail. With the several improvements, this jail sufficed till the courts were closed by the war. This was then sold and became a private residence. In August, 1865, Greenberry, Anderson, Wm. Alexander, P. D. W. Conger, J. B. Chappell, J. M. C. Garland, Harvey Brown and J. S. Miller were appointed a committee to report on the propriety of building a new jail. The work was undertaken in 1866. Warrants on the county to the amount of $18,000 were issued for the purpose of building the same. The building stands on the old jail lot, and is a two-story structure, with cells on the second floor. It is a well built and creditable building. It is a brick structure, and contains not only the jail proper, with its prison cells, but the jailer’s residence as well.
Previous to 1849, the poor of the county were farmed out to the lowest bidder, and were scattered over the county without system and with little regard to comfort and convenience. In the early part of the decade of 1840, a farm was purchased, with an eye to the erection of a poor-house thereon and collecting all paupers to the one place, but the one chosen did not prove a suitable location, and in 1841, Wyatt Mooring, John M. Barnett and John Irvin, were appointed by the county court to sell the same and to purchase a new site. In 1849 John H. Day and Charles Sevier were added to the committee, and in April of that year a 100-acre tract, lying about two miles north of Jackson, was purchased of Samuel Lancaster, for the sum of $600. The farm was put under the care of Mr.John Irvin, as superintendent till 1854, when this farm also was ordered sold. The county was without a poor-house till 1866, when a new committee, consisting of Wm. Alexander, Felix Rutherford, John Irvin, Richard Withers, H. H. Hodgson, J. B. Chapell and James Blackmon, were chosen to select a new site for a poor-house. This committee did not succeed in making a purchase. In January A. S. Rodgers, with A. B. Reid, H. H. Hodgson, B. W. Sims and James Blackmon, as advisory committee, purchased of W. J. Seahorn, a body of 297 acres, for the sum of $3,600 in county warrants. This embraced a farm of good land, and lies about eleven miles southeast of Jackson. James Adams was employed as superintendent, at a salary of $450 for the first year. The poor asylum is managed with comparatively little expense to the county.
The following is a list of the county officers up to the present time: Sheriffs-Thomas Shannon, 1822-26; Mark Christian, 1826-30, resigned in February, and was succeeded by Daniel Madden; Daniel Madden, 1830-34; Nathaniel Deberry, 1834-38; James McDonald, 1838-40; G. H. Kyle, 1838-42; J. S. Lyon, 1842-44; J. L. McClellan, 1844-46; J. C. Stewart, 1846-48; J. B. Jelks, 1848-54; J. J. Brooks, 1854-60; J. B. Woodfork, 1860-62; G. S. Perkins, 1865-70; B. M. May, 1870-78; W. F. Blackard, 1878-84; B. B. Person, 1884-86, incumbent. County court clerk-Roderick McIver, 1822-34; Thomas W. Gamewell, 1834- 56; P. C. McCowat, 1856-72; W. H. Parkham, 1872-76; S. D. Barrett, 1876-78; E. A. Clark, 1878-86; F. W. Adamson, 1886, incumbent. Circuit clerks-Beverly Randolph, 1822; resigned in October, and was succeeded by Wm. Harris; Wm. Harris, 1822-36; Andrew Guthrie, 1836-52; J. L. Brown, 1852-56; S. W. Boon, 1856-74; B. A. Sneed, 1874-82; W. L. Utley, 1882-86; B. J. Howard, 1886, incumbent. Register-John T. Porter, 1822; J. D. McClellan, 1836-48; W. B. Gates, 1848-56; W. G. Cockrill, 1856-62; J. R. Chiappell, 1865-70; Henry McCutchen, 1870-75; W. H. Bruton, 1875-76; J. M. Hardage, 1876-82; J. W. Wallace, 1882-86: incumbent. Clerks and master-Thomas Clark, 1846-73; D. M. Wisdom, 1873-82; M. L. Vesey, 1882- 84; R. B. Hurt, 1884, incumbent. Judges-Joshua Haskell, 1822-40; John Read, 1840-62; G. W. Reeves, 1865; W. P. Bond, 1866-70; Gideon B. Black, 1870-76; H. W. McCorry, 1876-82; T. C. Muse, 1882-86; L. S. Woods, 1886, incumbent. Chancellors-Andrew McCampbell, 1846-48; Calvin Jones, 1848-59; John Read, 1859-62 (July, Fourth District); J. W. Harris, 1865-69; T. C. Muse, 1869-70; James Fentress, 1870-75; H. W. McCorry, 1875-82; T. C. Muse, 1880-86; A. G. Hawkins, 1886, incumbent.
The city of Jackson was founded by an act of the General Assembly, passed in 1821-22, entitled an "act to establish a seat of justice for Henry, Carroll, Henderson and Madison Counties." The act called for fifty acres of land, to be deeded to the commissioners. The commissioners chosen by the Legislature were Sterling Brewer and James Fentress. The places had in view for the seat of justice, as elsewhere stated, were Alexandria, Golden’s Station and Jackson. The larger portion of the settlers at that time were living at Cotton Grove and vicinity, and as Jackson was a nearer point to them than either of the others, it was looked upon as the more suitable or desirable site for the seat of justice; hence it was chosen. The land to be obtained was to be by donation, or purchase on the most favorable terms. The thirty acres of the original plat of Jackson, lying east of Market Street, was obtained from John McNairy, Joseph Phillips and Wm. E. Butler, attorney, in fact, for the three, on April 9, 1822. Said thirty acres was a part of entry No. 13, for 500 acres owned by said parties. The conditions of the deed were that the lands were to be donated to said commissioners, Brewer and Fentress, but a lot of his own choice was to he reserved by each of the owners in the sale of town lots. Nineteen acres and a portion lying west of Market Street were purchased of David Shannon at $10 per acre, and a choice lot reserved. The last named property was a part of entry No 2, for 170 acres, made by Thomas Shannon, father of David Shannon. The corporate limits of Jackson have been extended fifty acres from time to time, as its growth required. In 1860 it embraced one square mile; now it embraces two miles square, or four square miles, or 2,560 acres.
The commissioners for the sale of lots consisted of Stokeley D. Hays, Bartholomew G. Stewart, David Horton, James Trousdale, Herndon Haralson, Vincent Haralson, Wm. E. Butler, Robert Hughes and Adam Huntsman, of which committee Herndon Haralson was chosen chairman. The sale of lots did not begin till July 4, 1822, when it continued from time to time as opportunity and necessity required. The commissioners were appointed from time to time as vacancies occurred. They were allowed $4 per day for their services at the first sales, the time charge ranging from seven to eighteen days. Said funds were to be taken out of the moneys arising from the sale of lots. To add spirit to the bidding the county court allowed Joseph Lynn $20 for spirits furnished at the sale. The first purchasers of lots were George Todd, who bought Lot 75; Herndon Haralson, Lot 34; Mark Fisher, Lot 39; Duncan McIver, Lots 32 and 34; Wm. Braden, Lot 63; James McKnight and Wilson McClellan, Lot 48; Vincent Haralson, Lot 16; David Horton, J. H. Ball and Isaac Curry, Lot 24; Wm. Espy, Lots 28 and 59, also a part in 24; A. B. Bradford, Lots 6½ and 25; W. L. Flenen, Lots 45 and 25; James Burns and James K. Polk, Lots 7, 27 and 29, the aggregate cost of the three being $582; Ivy and Breekly, Lot 11; S. F. Gray, Lot 82 and a part of 39; S. C. Crafton, Lot 80; Roderick Mclver, Lot 44; and Mr. Legget, Lot 39. This embraces all the lots sold he first year.
Wm. H. Doak was perhaps the first settler within the limits of Jackson, as he raised a crop of corn about where the Public square now is in 1821. A brother of Mr. Lanty died in Jackson in 1822. This was doubtless the first death within the city limits. Wm. H. soon after moved to the vicinity of Spring Creek, in the northeast part of the county. Jesse Russell, now in his eighty-third year, arrived in Jackson on January 1, 1822, and was married soon after by Squire Taylor. Jesse Russell at first settled on the lot just east of the Episcopal Church. Dr. John F. Brown, an eminent physician, settled in Jackson in 1823. His son, Mr. John Brown, a prominent citizen and lawyer, was born in Jackson in 1824, and still resides in his native city. He is the oldest native resident. Samuel Swan, who kept a small grocery, was the father of the first female child, a daughter, born in Jackson. Dr Wm. E. Butler settled just near the big spring where the water-works now stand. He soon after moved into town and built the large brick residence just east of the institute building, and north of Col. Chester’s residence. Dr. Butler was for a long time identified with the business interests of Jackson. He was agent of the old State Bank before the establishment of the Union Bank and Bank of the State of Tennessee.
Stokely D. Hays settled in Jackson in 1822. He was a prominent attorney and a brother-in-law of Dr. Butler. Mrs. Col. Robert Hays, who lived in Jackson at this time, was a sister of Mrs. Gen. Jackson. Gen. Wm. Arnold was for a long time connected with the settlement of the Robinson colony of Americans in Texas; he was also a member of the bar. Col. James Thebold, a brother-in-law of Gen. Arnold, was one of the first inn-keepers in Jackson. Thomas Shannon, who was living in what is now West Jackson at the time of the organization of the county, was sheriff from 1822 to 1826, and was one of the best known citizens Wm. Armor was one of the most prominent merchants of Jackson in her early history. He was senior member of the firm of Armor, Lake & Co. This firm did an extensive business till it went down in the financial crash of 1838-39. The business house of Armor, Lake & Co. stood where the extensive establishment of Robinson & Botts now stands. James Elrod and H. Harton were extensive business men of Jackson who began business about 1824. They erected a frame business house where Dr. Neeley’s drug store now stands. James Elrod was the first to issue ticket notes to circulate as bank notes. Daniel Madden was sheriff of the county from 1830 to 1834; he was beaten for the same office by Thomas Shannon, in 1824, by only two votes. John H. Ball was an inn-keeper, and at one time a blacksmith. He was a successful business man and afterward moved to Somerville. Ball was succeeded in the tavern business by Thomas Winn. Alexander B. Bradford was chosen solicitor-general at the organization, and continued in that office till 1836. Joseph H. Talbot and Alfred Murray were well known lawyers and began practice before the Jackson bar about the time of its formation. Charles Sevier lived here at the time of the organization of the county; he was a hatter by trade. He was a near relative of Gov. John Sevier-"Nollichucky Jack." He afterward moved south of Fork Deer River and settled on an occupant grant. Samuel Taylor was the first postmaster of Jackson. He was also a justice of the peace. Col. H. I. Chester came to Jackson in 1823. His name has been almost a household word throughout the county. He has not only passed his four score and ten, but four score four and ten and bids fair to see the coming of the next century. Dr. Bedford and Dr. Winn were two eminent physicians and were contemporaneous with Dr. John T. Brown. Herndon Haralson was one of the justices in the organization of the county and was a well known citizen. Wm. Stoddert was one of Jackson’s first and most distinguished lawyers. James Caruthers, father of Stoddert Caruthers was one of the most distinguished men of West Tennessee. Andrew L. Martin was prominent before the bar of Jackson in its early history, but afterward moved to Holly Springs. Alexander Patton is claimed to have kept the first store in Jackson. He did an extensive business and was a partner for a time with Wm. E. Butler. J. W. Campbell became cashier of the branch of the Union Bank that was established at Jackson, in 1832-33, and was afterward United States minister to Russia. Pleasant N. Miller was an excellent lawyer and was long and favorably known, He afterward moved to Holly Springs, Miss. In addition to these there was the family of the Nelsons and the Hicks. These embraced all, with few exceptions, who were living in Jackson at the beginning of 1824. Robert Brown came to Jackson in 1826 and is still living in it. Others have resided in Jackson between sixty and seventy years. Hon. B. J. Hays, son of Stokely D. Hays, came to Jackson with his parents, where he has since resided. He is a member of the bar and was the first mayor of Jackson; he is one of the survivors of the Mexican war.
Nearly all business houses from 1820 to 1850 were general stores. Dry goods, groceries, hardware, etc., were all kept by each merchant. The leading business men from 1820 to 1840 were Armor & Lake, Armor, Lake & Co., James Patton, Patton & Taylor, David Armor and James Elrod. The financial crash of 1838-39 ruined the greater number of these, some of whom never recovered. From 1840 to 1860, when business was stopped by the war, the business was done principally by James Elrod, G. N. Harris, H. J. Morrell, J. Miller, Person & Christian, B. Mitchell, T. & J. Collins, Glass & Son. Since 1865 to the present, the leading business houses are: Dry goods, Robinson & Botts, F. E. Bond, W. Holland, J. R. Withers, M. Tuchfeld, Sam Weingarten & Co., Williams & Perry, D. L. Murrell, J. Hoffman, J. Zimmerman, Marks & Bro. and F. Mayo; groceries, A. D. Dugger, G. H. Ramsey & Co., Burkett & Fletcher, Duke & Wisdom, J. P. Hendrix, Hill & Stedman, H. Baum, W. R. Griffith. J. N. Rosser, E. Felsenthal, M. M. Hammond and S. F. Gilkin; drug stores, M. S. Neely, Harris & Ward, M. P. McChesney, R. M. Hamner, Cooper & Co.; jewelers, E. H. Kelly, D. M. Hughes; furniture, R. E. Hopper, W. Bensinger & Son, Job Umphlett and W. D. Robinson; stoves, hardware -- R. H. Anderson & Son, G. C. Anderson, J. M. Reavis, Bates & Gorman; books, J. G. Cisco, J. M. Trotter; hats and caps, W. F. Alexander; clothing, Robinson & Botts, Henry Levi; wagon and buggies, Landis & Bro., J. H. Hirsch; merchant tailor, T. Murphy, Harry Meyer; cotton brokers, Dupree, Gates & Co., Capt. McCutchen, B. & J. Blackmon, Haley & Bro.
Jackson is in a very healthful condition financially, notwithstanding her last improvement’s in streets, gas lights, water-works, etc. The receipts for taxes have been gradual, and show a rapid increase in wealth and population. In 1858 the receipts were $4,462; in 1869, $10,058, and in 1882 (the highest) they were $36,861. The city has a floating debt of only about $15,000, and the water-works bonds of $100,000. The first is an insignificant sum and the latter is met by water privileges as fast as they become due. City bonds are readily taken at par. March 20, 1882, the city purchased of the Fire Extinguisher Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, one Champion Chemical Fire Extinguisher, one hand water engine, hose, reel hooks and ladder and other apparatus. The whole cost $2,000 less $37 off for cash and $800 due in twelve months’ time, with interest at 6 per cent until paid.
In 1883 the city decided, by popular vote, to issue $100,000 in bonds for the purpose of building water-works. Estimates of costs had been made by E. L. Cook, of Toledo, Ohio. The bonds were issued in style of $2,000 and $8,000 each, to be floated at par, drawing 5 per cent interest. One of each kind was to be due in 1894, one in 1896 and so on till 1913, when the last ones were to be due. The final estimate by item, including the civil engineer, was $99,372.26. The works are of the finest workmanship, and the water, which is remarkably pure, is obtained from a system of wells and a reservoir near the city. The city now has over six miles of mains, and owns its excellent system of works. The water can be thrown over the highest buildings in the city in large streams. It is by direct pressure from the engines. The water privileges will in a few years fully meet the expense of the investment. The city made a very fortunate venture.
Jackson continued under the government of the town board, which was a creature of the county court, till its incorporation, on December 16, 1845. An election was held by Sheriff Lyon to choose town officers. These officers held their first meeting on December 25, 1845. R. J. Hays was chosen mayor, which position he held till his resignation in 1846 to go to the Mexican war. The act incorporating the city legalized all acts of the town commissioners. Jackson was reincorporated on March 3, 1854, with greater powers, with the usual power granted to a mayor and board of aldermen. The minute book shows the usual fines for petty offense; among them are "fighting," "attempting to fight," "wanting to fight," "lewdness," "riding on the sidewalk," "contempt," "swearing," "gaming," "sneezing," "hallooing," etc.
The following is a list of the mayors, recorders and town constables or city marshals as far as can be ascertained: 1845, B. J. Hays, mayor. 1846, B. J. Hays and J. L. H. Tomlin, mayor. 1854, Alexander Jackson, mayor; J. C Green, recorder. 1855, Alexander Jackson, mayor; J. C. Green, recorder. 1856, B. J. Hays, mayor; A. W. Campbell, recorder; J. W. Norwood, city marshal. 1857, .S. Cypert, mayor; J. C. Green, recorder; J. W. Norwood, city marshal. 1858, B. J. Hays, mayor; J. C. Green, recorder; J. W. Norwood, city marshal. 1859, Wm. Alexander, mayor; A. W. Campbell, recorder; J. J. McAlexander, city marshal. 1860, J. H. Harper, mayor; B. B. Campbell, recorder; J. J. McAlexander, city marshal. 1861, P. D. W. Conger, mayor; B. B. Campbell, recorder; J. J. McAlexander, city marshal. 1862, B. J. Mason, mayor; B. R. Campbell, recorder; H. H. Whiteside, city marshal. 1865, Dr. G. Adamson, mayor; J. H. Harper, recorder; J. J. McAlexander, city marshal. 1866, Wm. Alexander, mayor; J. H. Harper, recorder; J. J. McAlexander, city marshal. 1867, Wm. Alexander, mayor; J. H. Harper, recorder; J. C. Cook, city marshal. 1868, J. J. McAlexander, mayor; B. R. Person, recorder; J. H. Clark, city marshal. 1869, Wm. Alexander, mayor; B. B. Person, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1870, Wm. M. Dunaway, mayor; Robert W. May, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1871, P. D. W. Conger, mayor, Robert W. May, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1872, Wm. M. Dunaway, mayor; Robert W. May, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1873, D. H. King, mayor; Robert W. May, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1874, J. A. Arrington, mayor; Robert W. May, recorder; Wm. F. McCabe, city marshal. 1875, D. H. King, mayor; John T. King, recorder; H. C. Anderson, city marshal. 1876, D. H. King, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; H. C. Anderson, city marshal. 1877, L. E. Talbot, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1878, XV. D. Robinson, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1879, James O’Conner, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshall. 1880, B. B. Person, mayor (resigned, and was succeeded by XV. D. Robinson); John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1881, J. M. Sullivan, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1882, B. L. Rozell, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1883, Col. John W. Buford, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1884, Col. John W. Buford, mayor (resigned, succeeded by H. C. Anderson); John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1885, W. D. Robinson, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal. 1886, W. D. Robinson, mayor; John T. Stark, recorder; J. D. Marks, city marshal.
The Jackson Compress Company was incorporated April 3, 1880, by George St. John, John O. White, W. H. Long, B. R. Cameron and Thomas St. John. This company does an extensive business. The Jackson Ice Company was incorporated by Howel E. Jackson, A. W. Campbell, N. S. White, R. A. Allison and J. W. Allison. It was incorporated in 1883, for the purpose of manufacturing ice, mineral water, cider, aerated beverages; to bottle and vend beer and ale; to vend wood, coal, lumber and building material. Capital stock was limited from $20,000 to $40,000. The Jackson Woolen Mills were incorporated in January, 1884, by J. L. Wisdom, H. W. McCorry, S. D. Hays, J. H. Duke, B. H. Harris and W. A. Caldwell. The company manufacture jeans, linseys, blankets, wool rolls and yarns. In January the Telephone Company of Jackson was incorporated by H. W. McCorry, C. G. Bond, D. F. Haney, L. S. Woods and W. T. Logan. The company now has in use over 100 instruments. The Champion Mills were incorporated in June, 1884, by J. L. Wisdom, H. W. McCorry, A. H. Duke and J. J. Rushing. The Sherman Manufacturing Company was incorporated in June, 1884, by Nathan S. Sherman, W. B. Cole, A. E. McGarey, M. F. Murdock and W. A. Caldwell. They manufacture and repair farm implements, engine boilers and saw-mill machinery. The Center City Mills were incorporated for a period of thirty-three years, with the usual power, by P. D. W. Conger, B. B. Hurt, B. A. Hays, James Harrison and N. H. Whitlow. The Jackson Oil Mills were established at Jackson in 1879 and 1880. An amended charter was obtained in April, 1886. The firm consists of J. L. Wisdom, P. J. Murray, H. E. Jackson and A. J. Porter. The officers are J. W. Allison, president, and P. J.. Murray, secretary. This is an extensive establishment and manufactures all the various products of the cotton seed, including the "Jackson Fertilizer." The Jackson Milling and Manufacturing Company was chartered in the spring of 1885 by J. H. Duke. J. M. McGathery, S. D. Hays, W. A. Caldwell, W. M. Johns and C. Dancey. Its object was to manufacture flour, meal, barrels, kegs, and to buy and sell grain, seeds, wood, lumber and coal. The Jackson Gas Works were founded in 1868. The company was to be known as the Jackson Gas Light Company, and was composed of .J. H. Harper, J. L. Tomlin, Robert Hart, B. I. Chester, J. Beverage, Wm. Alexander and Charles Leatherman. The company now has about sixty lamps, and mains reaching to every part of the city. The Jackson Building & Saving Association was chartered March 22, 1880, by E. S. Mallory, J. W. Allison. J. T. Stark, J. H. Freeman, .J. H. Hirsch, Howell E. Jackson, W. P. Robertson, J. T. McCutchen, B. A. Sneed and J. T. Beverage. The present officers are J. H. Hirsch, president; F. W. Adamson, secretary; N. S. White, treasurer; E. S. Mallory, attorney. The semi-annual report, ending April 30, 1886, shows that the association held $175,200 in mortgages on real estate, $3,716.45 in unpaid dues; interest, etc.; $203.95 in office furniture; $490 in real estate, and $3,049.61 cash in the treasury. The Jackson Free Library Association was incorporated February 1, 1886, by L. J. Brooks, F. M. Smith, D. L. Murrell, E. S. Mallory, G. C. Jones, H. Hawkins, A. P. Bourland, C. A. McCorry, N. Bond, J. G. Cisco and A. J. McGehee.
The first bank in Jackson was simply an agency of the old State Bank, which had its agent in the various cities of the State; Wm. E. Butler was the agent at Jackson. The next was the branch of the Union Bank, which was established here in 1831-32, with J. W. Campbell as cashier. This well known institution continued operations until it was closed by the war. On the resumption of business after the war, a savings bank was established in Jackson; this continued until the organization of the First National Bank. This institution was chartered August 24, 1874; James W. Anderson was chosen president. The directors were J. W. Anderson, Jno. M. Parks. W. K. K. Walsh, Milton T. Brown and W. A. Caldwell. The report of the cashier for October, 1886, shows the bank to have capital stock paid in, $50,000, surplus $15,000; undivided profits, national bank notes outstanding, dividends unpaid, individual deposits, etc., to the total amount of $208,649.85. The present directors of the bank are J. L. Wisdom, president; Hon. Howell E. Jackson, vice-president; W. A. Caldwell, cashier; Chester G. Bond, attorney; John A. Greer, Samuel M. White, assistant cashier; W. A. Caldwell, book-keeper and accountant; H. B. Gilmore, collector. The Second National Bank has just been opened for business (1886); the capital stock is $75,000. The officers are John A. Pitts, president; W. T. Nelson, vice-president; N. S. Moore, cashier. The board of directors are John A. Pitts, W. T. Nelson, Clifton Dancy, C. T. Bates, T. C. Abbott, S. D. Hays, H. H. Swink, L. J. Brooks and M. H. Meeks. The Bank of Madison began operations under charter, in June, 1866, with A. W. Campbell as president, and D. J. Merriwether as cashier. The capital stock was $50,000, at which it still remains. The present officers are N. S. White, president, and J. W. Theus, cashier.
The first newspaper, the Jackson Gazette, was issued first on May 29, 1824, by Col. Charles De McLean and Elijah Bigelow, and Ed. Hays. Col. McLean was a native of Virginia, where he was born in 1795, and came to Jackson in 1823-24. The Gazette was continued until 1830, when it became the Southern Statesman, and was edited by Judge Read and Timothy P. Scurlock. The Statesman was merged into the Truth Teller, in the fall of 1832, and was edited by James H. McMahon. This was continued by him until 1836, when he left for the Seminole war. The next newspaper venture was the Telegraph, a Whig paper, by B. H. Shepherd. This was not a success, and was discontinued after about one year. The next paper was a Democratic paper, by a learned Virginian, named Street. This paper was short-lived, as was a Whig paper published by Henry Swan. The Jacksonian was published by Rogers & Acton, in 1844. W. F. Doherty began the publication of a small Democratic paper in 1845-46, but it was soon after suspended. In 1855 J. H. Young started the Jeffersonian, but it, too, suspended in 1856. The paper, and it might be said, its editor, passed into the hands of Col. W. W. Gates. The next effort at a Whig paper was by ______ Mitchell, in 1841-42, but this suspended in a short time. The West Tennessee Whig was established by Col. W. W. Gates, who continued its publication until the office was closed and destroyed by the war. After the war Col. Gates with Don Cameron revived his paper, and continued its publication until 1870, when it was consolidated with the Tribune, which had been started by the Milligan Bros., but edited by Col. D. M. Wisdom. This partnership continued until 1872, when Col. Gates retired.
The Jackson Sun was first published in September, 1873, by Conner & Harald, and in 1877 by Gates & Enloe. In 1878 the Tribune and Sun were consolidated under the name of Tribune and Sun, under which name it is still published. It is published by the Tribune and Sun Publishing Company. John W. Gates retired from the firm in 1884. The Tribune and Sun is a widely circulated paper, and is edited with very marked ability.
In 1877 Col. W. W. Gates again started in the newspaper business. He again took the name of his old paper, West Tennessee Whig, which he edited about one year, when he sold it to William H. Brutin, L. J. Brooks, W. A. Ward and D. L. Balch. In September of that year Mr. Balch retired, and in July. 1883, L. J. Brooks and W. A. Ward became proprietors, Since January, 1885, the paper has been issued as a semi-weekly. It is now the only semi-weekly paper in West Tennessee. It is a twenty-eight column four-page paper, and is owned and managed by 1. J. Brooks. The Whig is a Democratic paper.
The first number of the Jackson Dispatch was issued in October, 1873, by J. J. Worrell, who is its present editor. Notwithstanding the misfortune of two fires, opposition of rivals, the Dispatch has to-day a wider circulation than ever before. Its circulation extends throughout West Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas and Texas. The Dispatch is a conservative Democratic paper. It is strictly a peoples’ paper. The True Baptist is a new religious journal, which was founded by Rev. Frederick Howard, D.D., in April, 1885. He is its editor, publisher and proprietor. The True Baptist is an able exponent of the doctrines of the Missionary Baptist Church. It also gives general news, and discusses the various theological questions and church ethics. The Forked Deer Blade, a spicy, breezy, independent Democratic paper, was founded by J. G. Cisco in 1883. The paper is printed on a steam-power press, and has a circulation in thirty States. J. G. Cisco, its editor and proprietor, is an excellent writer.
Jackson Lodge, No. 45, F. & A. M., worked first under a dispensation granted in 1822, but was regularly chartered on October 6, 1823. The charter bears the signature of Andrew Jackson, Grand Master of the State of Tennessee, and Thomas Clayton, D. G. M.; ______ Cooper, S. G. W.; W. E. Kennedy, J. G. W.; W. Tannehill, G. S. The charter was granted to Robert Murray, Daniel Madding, Austin A. King and others. Of these Robert Murray was made W. M., Daniel Madding S. W., and Austin A. King, J. W. Jackson Lodge erected the present hall owned by the lodge in 1850. It is 40x50 feet inside, and is a brick building two stories high. It is used by all the Masonic bodies.
St. John’s Lodge, No. 332, was organized from Jackson Lodge. On October 8, 1867, a charter was granted to St. John’s Lodge, No. 332. The grand officers of the State were J. M. Anderson, G. M.; J. W. Paxton, D. S. M.; J. S. Dancer, S. G.W.; J. M. Hughes, J. G.W., and C. A. Fuller, G. S. The first officers of this lodge were J. B. Morris, W. M.; N. H. Whitlow, S. W., and J. A. Metcalf, J. W. It may be here stated that Col. R. I. Chester was made a Mason in May, 1822 the oldest now living in the United States. Jackson Lodge was honored by a visit from Gen. Jackson, in 1825. Clinton Chapter, No. 9, was organized in 1827-28. It was not kept up for a time, and on October 14, 1834, it was transferred to Lexington. It was brought back in 1841-42. At the time of the transfer it contained thirteen members and at the time of the return but three of those were left. The officers of the Grand Chapter at that time were J. H. Thomas, G. H. P.; Thomas H. Moore, D. G. H. P.; Joe H. Talbot, King, and J. Grifford, G. S. The chapter was favored with a visit by James K. Polk, in 1844. Council No. 13, was organized October 15, 1851, on petition of Thomas Morse, Robert Stark, J. B. Chappell, Phillip Thompson, Wm. A. Dunaway, S. J. Jones, H. G. Bledsoe, J. M. McRee and Geo. Tucker. The first officers were Thomas Morse, M. I. G. C. M.; Robt. Stark, D. I. G. M., and J. B. Chappell, P. C. The State officers were J. P. Campbell, M. R. G. M, and J. O. Dashiell, G. R.
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masonry, John Chester Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, was instituted in Jackson, Tenn., on the 25th of January, 1879, under charter from the Supreme Council of the southern jurisdiction of the United States of America (mother jurisdiction of the world) at Charleston, S. C.-Albert Pike, Thirty-third Washington (D.C.) Sovereign Grand Commander; by H. H. Neal, Thirty-third Louisville (Ky.) Special Deputy, with B. H. Harris, Thirty-second Venerable Master; M. H. Robertson, Thirty-second Senior Warden; J. M. McGathery, Thirty-second Junior Warden; S. L. Collins, Thirty-second Treasurer; J. C. Smith, Thirty-second Recorder; Isaac Lewis, Thirty-second Orator; W. M. Johns, Thirty-second Senior Expert; R. A. Sneed, Fourteenth Junior Expert; H. P. Farrar, Thirty-second Master of Ceremonies; M. T. Carson, Third-second Captain of Host; B. H. Harris, Thirty-second, is now Venerable Master, and J. C. Smith, Thirty-second, is Recorder.
The charter to Phoenix Lodge, No. 216, B. of U. W., was granted May 10, 1886, to C. A. Chandler, J. W. Stewart, L. W. Barr, J. W. Williams, W. B. Dunn, J. A. Dalton, W. W. Rooker, Jesse Kyle, J. P. Muse, J. Connors, Wm. Pearcey, R. T. Long, F. T. Arun, R. S. Hill, C. G. Newman, S. J. Gayle, W. Stout, J. W. Stanley and J. W. Swetman. The lodge meets in the I. O. O. F. Hall.
Trimphant Lodge of Jackson, K. H., was granted a charter of the Grand Lodge of K. H., on May 17, 1885. The charter was signed by C. Allen, Wm. Anderson and thirty-six other members; they meet in the I. O. O. F. Hall, on the corner of Lafayette and Main Streets. Madison Lodge, No. 16, I. O. O. F., was chartered April 1, 1846. The charter members were Robt. Stark, WV. K. Parton, A. A. Smithrick, N. Hencott, A. F. Gibbs and J. A. Gilbert. The old charter was destroyed by fire and a new one issued October 18, 1882. This is now one of the largest lodges in the city.
The charter of Lancelot Lodge, No. 13, K. of P., was granted by the Grand Lodge February 10, 1874. The charter members were W. F. Alexander, J. T. Botts, Stoddert Caruthors, J. L. Kendrick, H. W. McCorry, Richard Hedman, W. P. Robinson, B. S. Spencer and J. T. Stark. The lodge has an elegant room over Dr. Neely’s drug store.
Friendly Hand Lodge, No. 201, Locomotive Engineers, was chartered March 2, 1884. The following are the charter members: Wm. Ruffin, Wm. Cook, Wm. Chilton, John Baker, Samuel Lynn, Timothy Cregleton, Jobe Bailey, J. Campbell, Eugene Simms and Thomas Druan. This lodge meets in the room of the K. of P.
Denmark lies about twelve miles southwest of Jackson and contains about 250 inhabitants. It is in the midst of a rich farming community, and was one of the first places settled in the county. The land on which Denmark stands was opened by Thomas Sanders in 1822. Before the war Denmark did considerable business, but the completion and extension of the railroads have to a great extent taken the trade elsewhere. The place was incorporated in 1854 under the style of mayor and alderman of Denmark. Denmark has had a Presbyterian Church since 1833, a Methodist since 1842, a Baptist since 1871, and a Methodist (colored) since 1873. It sustains a good school. The high school was chartered in 1885 by M. Murchison, Anderson Taylor, J. A. Bryant, J. L. Burton, F. E. Bryant and G. W. Day.
Spring Creek Postoffice is thirteen miles northeast of Jackson at the crossing of the Trenton and Lexington road with the Jackson, Spring Creek and Huntington road. This is more a county or neighborhood post-office than a town. It was, however, incorporated on January 2, 1854. The Cumberland Presbyterian and Masonic Lodge, No. 193, erected a church and lodge room there in 1865. It also contains a Baptist Church and Madison College. Some fine estates lie near Pinson, twelve miles south of Jackson on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, in District No. 1. It is located on a small stream called Bear Creek. It is a thriving place of about 300 inhabitants. Pinson contains a good school building, a Baptist Church and a Methodist Church and Masonic Hall combined. Pin-son is a good shipping point for the southern part of the county.
Medon, comprising about 300 souls, is situated ten miles south of Jackson on the Illinois Central Railroad. It is surrounded by a rich farming community. Medon has a good brick school building and a Masonic Hall. The Medon High School was incorporated in 1881 by W. H. Harrison, J. A. Haynes, J. P. Cobb, Wm. Pope, G. E. McDaniel and John McDaniel. Claybrook, fourteen miles east of Jackson; Carroll Station, six miles north on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad; Norwood, eight miles north on the Illinois Central, and Malesus, four miles south on the same road, are stations, and have postoffices and business houses. There is also a postoffice at Andrews’ Chapel, in District No. 7.
The county court for Madison was organized on December 17, 1821. It consisted of the justices appointed by the Legislature, mentioned on organization, and the following constables: George White, John Fare, Elijah Jones and Wm. H. Doak. Alex. B. Bradford appeared and took the several oaths as solicitor-general of the Fourteenth Solicitorial District. The sheriff’s first venire embraced the following persons: John Montgomery, Henry N. Coulter, Lewis Needham, Martin Lorance, John Hardgrove, Smith Sullivan, James Dollard, Moses Oldham, Francis Taylor, Zachariah Thomas, Wm. Davis, Sam’l Shannon, John Bradberry, Thomas Jones, Wm. L. Parker, Benjamin Jones, David Jernigan, Wm. Espy, Vincent Haralson, James Caldwell, James Harly Raygin, Francis Herron, Nathan Simpson, James Brown and C. C. Collier. The justices were divided into classes so as to hold quarter sessions. Wm. Atchison, Rob H. Dyer, Duncan Mclver, A. H. Alexander, Bartholomew G. Stewart and Joseph Lynn were to hold courts in June and December, and John Thomas, Wm. Braden, David Jarnett, James Trousdale, Herndon Haralson and Samuel Taylor in March and September. This court selected Francis Taylor’s and Wm. P. Scott’s, on Middle Fork; Henry Ruthferford’s, Key Corner; J. D. Caruther’s and Daniel Ross’, on South Fork, and Thomas McNeal’s on the south side of Big Hatchie, as the place of holding elections. This court established ferry rates as follows: Each loaded wagon, four horses, $1; three horses, 75 cents; two-horse team and wagon, 50 cents; each man and horse, 6¼ cents; loose horse, 2½ cents; each head of cattle, 2½ cents; sheep or hog, 2 cents. The ordinary rates fixed were: Each diet, 25 cents; lodging, 12½ cents; horse-feed all night, 37½ cents; single feed, 18¾ cents; half pint of domestic spirits, 12½ cents; foreign spirits, 25 cents. These continued with little variation for many years. The court was confined largely to the approval of officers’ bonds, granting the right for mill sites, building bridges, recording stock marks, making allowance for wolfs’ scalps, and much other of such matter. On August 10, 1826, was spread upon record a beautiful memorial to Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The jurisdiction of the county court at Jackson was much more circumscribed than were the county courts in some of the older counties, when the county court was the only court in existence for some time. The first State case was the State against Squire Dawson for petit larceny. He was found guilty, September 18, 1822, but took an appeal to the circuit court. In 1824 there was a succession of slander suits. Henry Pace secured $100 against John Graves; T. M. Dement, $65 against Thomas Boling; and Wm. C. Love, $799 against Jonathan Houston, but he was released by the plaintiff. On September 28, the following entry was made: "Ordered that John Fussell be fined $10 for contempt shown this court for fighting John Montgomery in the court yard, during the sitting of the court, to the great disturbance of the same."
The circuit court of Madison County was established by an act of the General Assembly, passed November 4, 1821, called a court of "Law and Equity for the Eighth Circuit." A commission was issued by Gen. Carroll to Judge Joshua Haskell, on November 14, 1821. The oath was administered to Judge Haskell by John Smith, presiding justice of the court of pleas and quarter sessions of Rutherford County. The court held its first session at Alexander’s office, where the county court met; on April 14, 1822. The officers of the court, besides Judge Haskell, were Thomas Shannon, sheriff, and Beverly Randolph, circuit clerk. The first grand jury consisted of Adam H. Alexander, foreman; J. T. Porter, Wm. E. Butler, Duncan McIver, Ezekiel B. McCoy, Wm. L. Davis, W. C. Love, W. C. Mitchell, Benjamin White, Wm. Doak, Geo. Todd, Roland Chandler and Drury Belter. On the organization of the court, the following attorneys were admitted: J. W. Cocke, Alex B. Bradford, James Jones, Robert Hughes and Archibald C. Hall. Judge Haskell remained on the bench till 1840, when he was succeeded by Judge John Read. Judge Haskell lived at "Haskell Hill," in Jackson, and was a man highly respected for his character, courtly bearing and pleasant manners. He was the father of Wm. Haskell, one of Tennessee’s greatest orators. Alex B. Bradford, the first solicitor-general, was a very popular attorney. He moved to Mississippi in 1834. Joseph Talbot, the second solicitor-general, was considered a very able prosecutor, and more than an average lawyer. The first cases in the circuit court were the cases of Wm. Newsom against J. B. Hogg, and Rob H. Dyer and Jonathan Curren against Robert H. Dyer. Both were cases of debt. The first State case was the State against Squire Dawson, on an appeal from the county court, for petit larceny. The decision was to the effect. that Dawson should receive twenty lashes on the bare back, well laid on. This occurred on October 22, 1822, and was the first punishment of the kind ordered. The first divorce suits were filed by Patsey Dun against Joseph Dun, and James Ricketts against Jenny, his wife. The former case was stricken from the docket, and the latter granted. In 1823 G. B. Chambers obtained 12½ cents damage against L. D. Waddel in a suit for damage. Fines were inflicted for betting on cards, roulette, "bazoon" and the wheel of fortune. The first case of horse stealing was the case of the State against Adam Lowry, on November 28, 1824. The jury in the case were J. B. Cross, Robert Lowing, H. G. Connally, W. Ray, H. W. James, Wm. Espy, William Nichols, Gabriel Chandler, James A. Edwards and Robert Hasster. This was before the penitentiary law, and the punishment in this case was that Lowry should be taken to the public whipping post, and there receive thirty-nine lashes, be branded upon the brawn of the thumb with "H. T.," should be sent to jail for thirty days, and made to stand in the pillory two hours of every three days out of seven, be rendered infamous, and be made to pay the cost of his prosecution.
The first murder trial began in October, 1826, and ended January 31, 1827, in conviction. The case was the State against Thomas Jameson, for the murder of Francis Sanders. Jameson was an objectionable suitor for the hand of Sanders’ daughter. The murder was committed for the purpose of securing the wished for prize. The prisoner was remanded to jail to remain till May 4, 1827, between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., when he should be taken to a convenient place near Jackson, and there hung by the neck until dead. The execution was duly carried out about two miles from Jackson. A negro was also executed as an accomplice. At the July term of the same year, James Wright, for the killing of West Ratcliff, was convicted of manslaughter and ordered to pay a fine of $25 and the cost of his prosecution, also to be branded on the thumb with the letter "M." The first case to the penitentiary after the passage of the penitentiary law, was William Morgan, convicted of horse stealing. He was convicted January 23, 1834, and sentenced for a term of three years, and was rendered infamous. A motion for a new trial, also a motion for arrest of judgment was overruled. On July 24, 1834, was ended a suit that was well known throughout the State. It was the suit of the State against John A. Murrell, for negro stealing. Whether guilty or not guilty, he was accused of almost every crime known to the criminal calendar. The jurymen in the well known case were Joseph Hogg, Chas. Robertson, J. G. Snodgrass, Henry Tate, Samuel Lancaster, Granderson Spurlock, David Robertson, John Rodgers, David McKnight, A. H. Morrow, Jacob Sneed and James Elrod. Murrell was sentenced to the penitentiary for a term of ten years. He was defended by Milton Brown, All motions for new trial and arrest of judgment were overruled. Elizabeth Murrell, sister of the above was convicted of larceny and sentenced for one year, but was recommended for mercy and received a nominal fine. The attorneys to 1834, in addition to those mentioned already, were John Wyatt, who died in 1824. A committee consisting of J. H. Talbot, Alfred Murray and Adam Huntsman, said he was one of "our brightest ornaments and best brothers." On June 17, 1823, J. S. Allen, Benjamin Gillespie, Hugh W. Dunlop and Andrew McCarnphell were admitted to the bar, and June 27, 1824, M. A. McKenzie. These men were only fairly well known to the Jackson bar. Adam Huntsman, one of the ablest statute lawyers Jackson ever had, was a native of Virginia. He moved to Knoxville in early life, where he read law with Judge John Williams. He moved to Monroe County, where he remained till 1824, when he came to Jackson, where he remained till his death on August 23, 1849. The committee that drew up the memorial of his death consisted of Judge John Read, Henry Brown, Samuel McClanahan, A. W. O. Totten, Micajah Bullock and Milton Brown. Adam Huntsman served as State senator, was a member of the constitutional convention of 1834, and a member of Congress. He beat the celebrated Davy Crockett in the last race Crockett ever ran. Huntsman was never beaten for office. Andrew L. Martin began practice in Jackson in 1825 or 1826. He was widely known as a lawyer and politician. He moved to Mississippi between 1840 and 1850. William Stoddert, one of the ablest and best known lawyers of the Jackson bar, began practice in 1822 and continued until his death recently. Milton Brown first became known to the profession in 1832. He was a law partner of Wm. Stoddert, and by many was considered the ablest man ever before the Jackson courts. Samuel McClanahan was an eminent lawyer, and began practice at Jackson about 1834. Other attorneys were William Anderson, Austin King, James Jones, Daniel Thomas, T. A. Warren, A. C. Hall, D. W. Maury, Robert Hughes, Wm. Arnold, John W. Cocke, W. B. Miller, P. M. Miller, Stokely D. Hays, Wm. Arnold and Robert Hodge.
Judge John Read received his commission as circuit judge in 1840, and held that position till the courts were closed by the war in 1862. Judge Read was a man of a clear judicial mind, firm, upright and honest. He was plain in his dress, but affable in manner. About the time of Judge Read’s coming upon the stage there came a class of eminent lawyers. Alex B: Bradford was succeeded as attorney-general, for the time being, by Henry W. McCorry in 1836, and he by Wm. N. Porter in 1837, and he by Wm. B. Miller, till 1840, who moved away, and Joseph H. Talbot received his commission from Gov. Polk, on April 23, 1840. Timothy P. Scurlock became attorney-general in 1846, and was succeeded by J. H. Stephens in November, 1850.
The third legal hanging in Madison occurred about 1838. It was a man named Reiley, for the murder of a man named Willis. The killing occurred about ten miles east of Jackson, and the execution followed in due time and form. The court of 1838 sent S. R. Smith and Burwell Clark each to the penitentiary for three years, for forgery, B. W. H. Medares three years for larceny. A very exciting suit, in which money, talent and social influence were involved, was the suit of J. L. Tarbutton against W. M. Price, for the seduction of his daughter. The case was begun in April, 1837. The best legal talent was employed in the suit. It was taken to Haywood County, where it was compromised. The plaintiff recovered $1,000 and costs. The suit of Sanders vs. Stores in a case of ejectment, lasted from 1840 to 1848; also the suit of Cole vs. Sanders. The case grew out of the purchase of a negro by the former from the latter. It was alleged that Sanders had sold the plaintiff an unsound negro. The case lasted from 1844 to 1848. In May, 1859, A. Williams was found guilty of "rape" and was sentenced to the penitentiary for twenty-one years. The last court before the war was held in May, 1861, with Judge Read presiding. The jury summoned consisted of J. W. Sharp, A. B. Goodwin, B. Withers, Thomas Campbell, W. H. Brown, F. G. Gibbs, J. B. Cole, J. P. Thomas, J. M. Greer, W. M. Tidwell and Henry Glen. In 1849, August 23, Adam Huntsinan, before mentioned, died. A committee consisting of Henry Brown, Judge John Read, Samuel McClanahan, A. W. O. Totten, Micajah Bullock and Melton Brown drew up suitable memorials. David Reid died August 27, 1858. A memorial of his death was also spread upon record. The courts were reopened after the war by Geo. W. Reeves as judge; G. G. Perkins, sheriff, and Sion W. Boon, on November 20, 1865. In 1866 Wm. R. Bond received his commission as judge, and Wm. F. Tally, attorney-general.
Numerous suits followed soon after the war, some of which sprang from bitterness and were engendered by the war. Happily these difficulties soon passed away. On April 25, 1874, Milton McLoed shot and killed Thaddeus Pope. McLoed was arrested, tried, convicted, and on January 7, 1876, was executed before an immense throng. The stoicism manifested by the defendant throughout the entire proceedings was remarkable. On July 13, 1876, Millard Filmore Wilson (colored) murdered Capt. Newton C. Perkins, and on the anniversary of his crime was executed. Judge Milton Brown died in October, 1882. He was born in Lebanon, Ohio, in 1804, and came to Jackson some time after the organization, and shone like a meteor for more than half a century. His name vividly calls up recollections of Martin Huntsman, Read, Haskell, Caruthers, McClanahan, Totten, Scurlock, Stephens, Bullock, Miller and many others. The bar of Jackson has long been represented by an eminent class of attorneys. Being as it is, a central point for West Tennessee, a vast amount of litigation has been had before it. Fifty trials for murder seem large, yet it is not, compared with other portions of the country, and the area embraced in its range. No morbid desire induced this statement, but it simply stands as a truth. The criminality of these offenses ranges from the greatest to the most trivial.
From the rule book appears the first suit from the Madison County Chancery Court in 1825. It was a suit of John Henderson, James Caldwell and Wm. Miller against John Overton. The court was then held at Huntingdon, and there appear the depositions of James Mallory, Andrew Jackson and Samuel B. Overton. The first court in Jackson was held May 7, 1846, before Andrew McCampbell, chancellor for the western division, at which time Thomas Clark was appointed clerk and master. Case No. 1 was the suit of Timothy P. Jones against the Planters’ Bank for ejectment. It was gained by Jones, and appealed to the supreme court by the defendant. In July, 1848, Calvin Jones became chancellor. The first attorneys’ names entered before the chancery court were Gen. Gibbs, R. J. Hays and Geo. W. Bond. In 1865 this court was reorganized by J. W. Harris. The attorneys entering their names at that time were Samuel McClanahan, Henry Brown, W. H. Stephens, J. H. Tomlin and J. R. Stephens. In 1867 Hon. T. C. Muse became chancellor, and in 1870 James Fentress, with D. N. Wisdom as chancellor and master. The Jackson bar is now represented by McCorry & Bond, Pitts, Hays & Meeks, Bullock & Anderson, H. J. Hays, Caruthers & Mallory, Brown & Herron, J. L. Brown, A. W. Campbell, T. C. Muse, J. B. Robertson, J. L. Lewis, ______ Williams, E. G. O’Conner, J. W. Bryant, Tomlin & Haynes.
In the war of 1812 the Third and Fourth Tennessee regiments were raised in East Tennessee. The troops rendezvoused in Rhea County to embark for New Orleans. The order, however, was countermanded, and they were sent direct to Mobile. The Third Regiment was commanded by Col. Thomas Booth, with Wm. Armstrong as adjutant and John Sutherland as quartermaster. The Fourth Regiment was commanded by Samuel Bayless, as colonel; ______ Hill, lieutenant-colonel; W. C. Headman, major; Wm. Bayless, adjutant; Dr. A. Nelson, regimental surgeon, and R. I. Chester, of Jackson, as quartermaster. The men were marched direct to Mobile, where they remained till the news of peace was received. Col. Chester was present when the nine militia-men were shot by order of the court martial called by Gen. Jackson. The men were tried for desertion, mutiny and sedition. The men were led to the place of execution and fifty-four shots were fired at them, and all fell dead, except one, who was severely wounded. He begged for pardon, which was granted, but what the executioners failed to do was accomplished by an ignorant surgeon by bleeding.
In 1836, among the many companies tendering their services, the Madison Grays were accepted. This was organized as a political company, but its services were tendered and accepted by the governor. This was Company B, and its officers were Jesse McMahan, captain; Wise K. Cook, first lieutenant, and Wm. 0. Butler, second lieutenant. The company was assigned to the regiment of Col. A. B. Bradford. From Lexington the company went to Fayetteville, the place of rendezvous; thence direct to Montgomery, Ala. Soon after a treaty was made with the Creeks, when the men proceeded to Tallahassee; thence to the Withlacoochee, where a battle was fought with Osceola and Jumper. The men remained in Florida till their term of service (six months) had expired, when they shipped from Tampa Bay to New Orleans, when they were mustered out, and returned home by way of the Mississippi River to Memphis; thence by stage home. The company left home June 25, 1836, and returned January 24, 1837. The only losses by battle were Sergt. Beard, killed, and S. Hays, wounded. It is believed that the only living representatives of the company are Liberty Weir, of Jackson, and Richard Bradford, of Lake County.
On the call of the President for volunteers for the Mexican war, by an act of Congress of May 13, 1846, many were offered, but, indeed, few were chosen. Company F, called Capt. Jones’ company, was enrolled at Jackson in May, 1846, and mustered at Memphis on June 4, 1846, by Gen. L. F. Coe. The following is the muster roll of the company, as it appeared April 4, 1847: Timothy Jones, captain; Richard J. Hays, second lieutenant; Alex P. Green, third lieutenant; John H. McClanahan and Horace G. Bledsoe, sergeants; John Thompson, John J. Anderson and James E. Whyte, corporals; William L. Anderson, drummer. Privates: Tyler Anderson, Wm. Browning, Benj. F. Bledsoe, Thomas Boyd, Joe A. Burns, John Burns, Jason H. Clowd, Eli Chandler, Wm. W. Dickerson, L. W. Fussell, Ben F. Gourley, Robt. Faltom, E. B. W. Hobbs, J. Hollingsworth, Robt. Houston, Christopher Johnson, Wm. W. Jones, Wm. G. Mathews, Leander D. Miller, Nathan Miller, I. H. Marks, Wm. Nicks, K. B. Pledger, Everett Pearcy, Samuel Smith, John Stuart, John Swan, John Wright, Alonzo L. Whyte, Solomon Whitlow, Geo. E. Willy, Benj. Williams, John Wagnon and John Woodel. The following were discharged for wounds or disability, at Camargo, Tampico or Vera Cruz: J. B. Freeman, Alex Henderson, Samuel Lyon, E. B. Donelson, C. T. Knight, Wm. A. Day, Hiram Anderson, E. A. Clark, J. C. Cochran, J. B. Cross, Daniel Depriest, Joel Lewis, Geo. W. Lyon, Harris Rhodes, J. F. L. Sevier, Hiram Tomlin and A. Williams. The following were killed in battle, died of wounds, or of sickness: Wyley Pope Hale, Willis Fleming, Thomas Griffins, Robt. Kernan, Ira Martin, Ephraim Price, Geo. A. Smith, Wm. O. Stribbling, Alex Tyner and John Yancy. Of these. Fleming, Griffins, Kernan, Price and Stribbling were killed at Cerro Gordo, April 18, 1847; Hale and Smith were mortally wounded at the same engagement; Martin and Yancy died of disease at Camargo, and Tyner at Metamoras. Capt. Jones’ company belonged to the Second Regiment, Tennessee Volunteers, First Brigade. The regimental officers were Wm. T. Haskell, colonel; C. S. Cummings, lieutenant-colonel. The company was an old political organization, and its services were tendered and accepted. The company was known as the "Avengers." The following are believed to be the only survivors of the company: R. J. Hays, H. G. Bledsoe, Everett Pearcy, E. A. Clark, Samuel Smith and James Cole. . . .
On the outbreak of the civil war there was a remarkable unanimity for the South. The first company to tender its aid to the Confederacy was the Southern Guards. After a temporary organization, this, with five other companies, became the major part of the Sixth Tennessee. Each of these six companies numbered at first fully 150 men. The regimental officers of the Sixth were W. H. Stephens, colonel; T. P. Jones, lieutenant-colonel; Geo. C. Porter, major; R. R. Deshiell, surgeon; J. S. Turner, assistant-surgeon. The officers of the Southern Guards, Company H, were W. C. Penn, captain; Alex. Brown, first lieutenant; John McDonald, second lieutenant; George Taylor, third lieutenant. The Jackson Grays, Company G, as well as the Southern Guards, were made up mainly in and around Jackson. The commissioned officers of G were A. B. Freeman, captain; Isaac Jackson, first lieutenant; James Elrod, second lieutenant; B. F. Bond, third lieutenant. Company K was recruited in the vicinity of Denmark, and was called the "Danes." Their commissioned officers were John Ingram, captain; F. W. Campbell, first lieutenant; Thomas Rice, second lieutenant; James Walker, third lieutenant. The "Madison Invincibles," from Medon and vicinity, were commanded by Westbrook Freeland, captain; Rev. G. L. Winchester, first lieutenant; Thomas Lacey, second lieutenant; R. A. Mays, third lieutenant. Company E, McClanahan Guards, were commanded by J. M. Wollard, captain; J. J. Anderson, first lieutenant; Henry Hill, second lieutenant; J. Fussell, third lieutenant. The "Gadsden Spartans" were commanded by Capt. Collinsworth; Ed. Smith, third lieutenant. Later in the service, after the ranks became depleted, the Sixth was consolidated with the Ninth; Capt. Robert Ford’s company of recruits was also added. The other officers of Ford’s company were J. D. Bond, first lieutenant; G. Smith, second lieutenant; Lum Sharp, third lieutenant. . . .
The Jeff Davis Guards, Company C, of the Thirty-eighth, was raised and commanded by Job Umphlett, captain. The other commissioned officers were A. B. March, first lieutenant; J. D. Thompson, second lieutenant; W. C. Robinson, third lieutenant. The company originally was composed of seventy-two men.
The Thirty-third Regiment was commanded by Gen. A. W. Campbell, of Jackson. It contained one company from Madison.
Company B, of the Fourteenth Regiment Cavalry, was from Madison County. This company was commanded by Z. Vass, captain; Robt. Stribbling, first lieutenant; B. Halton, second lieutenant; H. H. Swink, third lieutenant. The regimental officers were J. J. Neeley, colonel; Rolla White, lieutenant-colonel; Thomas Thurman, major. The regiment was mustered into the service July 10, 1863, at Gun’s Church, Miss. The regiment was with Forrest the greater part of the time. It operated in Mississippi; was with Hood in his disastrous raid upon Nashville, and fell back with the army through Franklin Spring Hill, Columbia, Pulaski, Bainbridge and to Rienzi, where the men were furloughed home ten days. They again assembled at West Point, and passed to Selma (Ala.), Tuscaloosa, and were surrendered at Gainesville.
The Fifty-first Regiment was raised in December, 1861. It was composed of eight companies, four of which were from Madison County. This was commanded by Capts. Hudson, Clark, Elder and Murchison, respectively. The regimental officers were ______ Browder, colonel; John Chester, lieutenant-colonel, and E. A. Clark, major. After the reorganization this regiment was consolidated with the Fifty-second. A full history of this regiment is given in the State work.
The county court acted promptly in voting aid to soldiers, and supplies for families of the indigent. In May, 1861, the entire county was organized into militia companies, and their officers appointed, there being altogether eighteen companies. Old guns were tendered for arms. October 7, 1861, J. H. Harper was allowed $140, fourteen pairs of bullet molds, and on April 7, 1862, the county court made a unanimous tender to Gen. Beauregard of the court house bell. In April, 1862, county script was issued to aid soldiers’ families. Of this over $7,000 was paid out, and the city of Jackson, in April, 1861, issued bonds to the amount of $5,000, to be used by the committee of safety in procuring arms and ammunition. In a short time $10,000 more was placed at the disposal of the committee.
The Madison Male Academy was chartered by the Legislature in 1834. The trustees were James Caruthers, Milton Brown, Wm. Armor, John W. Campbell, Joshua Haskell, Andrew L. Martin, Wm. E. Butler, J. H. Talbot, J. B. Creighton, D. A. Street and W. A. Stephens. A lot was purchased, known as the Marshall or Hurt property, and a brick building erected thereon by private subscription. The school was managed as an academy till 1843-44, when authority was given for a collegiate school. The trustees named for the West Tennessee College were James Caruthers, John W. Campbell, W. H. Stephens, Milton Brown, Robt. Fenner, M. Cartinell, Alexander Jackson, J. L. Talbot, Sam’l Lancaster, A. W. Campbell, together with Samuel McClanahan, Geo. Snyder, A. W. O. Totten and James Vaulx. The name of the institution was changed, but the trustees were the same and new buildings were added on the same grounds. In 1844 James Caruther exchanged the forty-six acres of ground where the university now stands for the old property and $3,000 in money, the title to be confirmed on payment of same. This land was formerly owned by A. L. Martin, and adjoined the 500-acre tract of McNairy, Butler & Phillips. The title was confirmed January 26, 1855. Before the cession of the Territory of Tennessee by North Carolina to the United States Government, that State reserved military land warrants varying in size from 320 acres to 5,000 acres for her continental soldiers and 100,000 acres for a college in East Tennessee and one in West Tennessee, then embracing both Middle and West Tennessee; 100,000 acres for academies, also one section out of each congressional township for common schools. The land warrants were very difficult claims to adjudicate, as the surveys were very unsatisfactory. In 1806 Congress made the State of Tennessee its agent to carry out its part of the cession act. In 1845-46 Congress was memorialized by the Legislature of Tennessee, when it not only gave up all claims to public lands in Tennessee but donated $40,000 of the surplus from the sale of lands to the West Tennessee College. The school was thus managed by the trustees till 1874, when the trustees, seeing that the college was only receiving local patronage, and feeling the need of more endowment, that its usefulness might be extended, proposed to the Baptist Church of Tennessee that its buildings, lands, etc., should be given for the use of the faculty of the Southwestern University, then located at Murfreesboro, on condition that the church should raise $300,000 as an additional endowment within ten years. This was afterward modified to $100,000. The faculty of the Southwestern Baptist University opened the academic department in the fall of 1874, since which time it has been in successful operation. The university has held regular commencement exercises since 1876. The number of graduates have varied from one to six. The medical department, which is located at Memphis, was added in 1880. The literary department, which embraces the usual course of such institutions, is under the direction of George W. Jarmen, LL.D., assisted by a corps of thorough and experienced teachers. The university has for support about $50,000 in grounds and buildings, $55,000 in productive funds, $40,000 which is the Government donation and is held in Tennessee bonds, and $15,000 in private donations. In addition the university has about $15,000 of non-productive funds. The remaining source of income is in tuition charged. As soon as the $100,000 endowment is raised, which will doubtless be done soon, it is proposed to erect additional buildings and add other improvements necessary.
The Memphis Conference Female Institute was founded and chartered in 1843, at Jackson. As its name indicates, it is strictly a female school under control of the Methodist Church South. This institution is in the forty-third year of its existence. It employs a faculty of thirteen regular instructors. To the institute twenty-seven commencement sermons have been preached, and twenty-eight annual addresses have been delivered. The first building proved to be inadequate for the demands and in 1855 it was greatly enlarged. The institute has grown in popularity and usefulness notwithstanding opposition and adverse circumstances, until it now ranks among the best in the State. In 1885 the east wing was erected, containing a large dining hall and twelve additional boarding rooms. The main building (four stories high) contains the president’s office, family rooms, and seventeen boarding rooms. The west wing contains the chapel, music department, art department, reading room, library of 4,000 volumes, and recitation rooms.
The buildings are of brick and are all under one roof. The grounds are five acres in extent and are tastefully laid in walks, and ornamented with flowers and shaded with trees. About 500 young ladies have graduated from the institute and gone into fields of usefulness. The attendance numbers about 200. The institute, under control of Dr. Jones since its inception, is carried on with singular economy, and is intended to bring out the higher moral and intellectual qualities of the mind.
The Public Schools of Jackson were organized under an amended act of 1873, which was passed in 1881. An ordinance was passed in 1879, under the act of 1873 creating the Jackson City graded schools. The board of education consisted of W. P. Robertson, E. S. Mallory, James O’Conner and J. H. Hirsch, with J. C. Brooks as superintendent with eight assistants. The following tabulated statements show the progress of the schools and other items.
The above is rather a remarkable showing when it is considered that the schools are now in the eighth year of their existence, starting as they did without organization and without school buildings. The schools are organized into three departments: primary, intermediate and grammar. The course in the primary department is three years; in the intermediate two years, and in the grammar department it is three years. The tuition embraces a thorough course in the common branches, including physiology, algebra, botany, book-keeping, United States and English history. In November, 1884, written examinations of every pupil in school, from the second to eighth grades, were held. These with the photographs of the board of education, groups of the teachers and of the school buildings were sent to the World’s Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exhibition at New Orleans, and placed in the educational department, for which the Jackson schools received an .award. The first graduates from the Jackson City graded schools were in 1882, when there were nine; in 1883. there were six; in 1884, twelve; in 1885, eighteen white and three colored; in 1886, eighteen white and two colored pupils. The board of education, consisting of W. P. Robertson, J. H. Duke, James O’Connor, W. F. Alexander and E. S. Mallory, are men well suited for their places. Frank M. Smith, superintendent; F. P. Elliott, principal of Grammar Hall; Fannie Harper, principal of Primary Hall, and A. R. Merry (colored), with their assistants, are enjoying well earned reputations.
The public schools of "Madison County were organized in 1873, under B. R. Campbell, as county superintendent. He was followed by Dr. J. D. Mason, in 1875-76; Alfred Oliver was superintendent from 1876 to 1878, and W. D. Meriwether from 1878 to 1880. W. G. Cockrill has been superintendent since that date. From a feeling of unfriendliness to positive opposition in some sections the schools have grown in much favor. The following tabular statement shows the increase under the various headings, as far as the reports are obtainable:
Madison County has a school term of about six months in the year, and school-houses suitable for all
The First Baptist Church of Jackson was organized according to the articles of faith of that church on January 29, 1837, by Rev. John Finlay and Rev. Peter S. Gayle. The following members signed the articles: H. M. Finlay, Mary Armour, Wm. Evans, Moses H. Prewitt, Mary B. Gannaway, Jenet Lake, Richard Rawlings, Nancy W. Evans, Wm. F. Still, G. York, Mrs. York and Mary J. York, all of whom are now dead. To Dr. Finlay is the church indebted for its organization in West Tennessee. Dr. Finlay was born March 10, 1794, in Scotland, and graduated at the University of Glasgow. In 1835 he came to West Tennessee and settled near Jackson. He superintended the Female Academy during the week and preached on Sundays at Cane Creek, Ararat, Denmark and at other points. Dr. Finlay was the first pastor, serving one year and three months, and was succeeded by Rev. Gayle, who served about eight months. Dr. Finlay again became pastor in October, 1838, and served as such till January, 1841. Rev. Gayle served as pastor in 1840, and again in 1844-45. In. the early part of the year 1841, Rev. C. C. Conner became pastor and served the church for one year. There was a large increase in membership during his pastorate. Rev. Henry L. Pettus served the church in 1846, and Rev. G. D. Martin in 1847. Rev. A. J. Spivey became pastor in 1848 and served two years. During his pastorate, through the preaching of Rev. J. H. Graves, the church was greatly strengthened, so much so that the congregation was enabled to have preaching every Sabbath. Rev. George Tucker served the church from 1850 to 1852. At this time the church took very decided ground against the sale and use of ardent spirits. Rev. J. W. Miller became pastor in 1852, but severed his connection in a short time, when Rev. Abner Morrill, then tutor in West Tennessee College began preaching, and served the church till 1855. Rev. D. H. Selph, president of Madison College at; Spring Creek, preached once a month till 1857, when Rev. Aaron Jones became pastor, and served two and a half years. It was during his pastorate an unfortunate dissension arose. Rev. J. H. Hamilton became pastor in 1860, and served about one year. Regular services were not. held during the period of the war. Rev. A. J. Hall became pastor in October, 1865, and served till November 3, 1866. The church at this time was weak, but Rev. Hall did much to collect the scattered fragments of the once strong church. Rev. J. F. B. Mays served the church as pastor from June 4, 1867, to January 1, 1873. He found the church with about fifty members and left it with 196. Dr. C. R. Hendrickson became pastor August 15, 1873, and served till his death, October 21, 1881. It was in the beginning of his pastorate that the new church was begun. The building committee consisted of Dr. Hendrickson, Abner Lawler, M. Corbett and Dr. A. B. Powell. The financial committee consisted of D. W. Hughes, A. S. Sayle and Thomas E. Glass. The work was begun in 1874, but owing to financial depression the work was not completed till 1885. The church now has an excellent building worth from $8,000 to $10,000. Rev. E. B. McNeil served the church as pastor from February, 1882, to September of the same year. An unfortunate selection for pastor resulted in dissensions and a loss of about fifty members of the church. In October, Rev. McNeil was again recalled, and served acceptably till his successor, Rev. J. L. Vass, was chosen in March, 1885. The church now has regular preaching every Sabbath, also maintains a Sabbath-school, and is in a healthy condition spiritually and financially.
The first preaching at Ararat by a Baptist minister, was done by Rev. John Finlay, in 1837. The church was organized at this place in 1851, and a church erected in 1871. The trustees at that time being Sandy Cole, J. W. Shelton and C. Buntin. The church numbers ninety-eight members, and has property worth $500. Rev. M. A. Carthcart is pastor.
The church at Denmark numbers thirty-six members, with J. P.Kincaid as pastor. The church at that place was erected in 1871. The trustees of the church at that time were Jerry ________, W. Moddell and Joe Newbern. Rev. Finlay preached for the people of Denmark in 1837.
The church at Maple Spring was organized in 1849. The membership now is 122. The house of worship was erected in 1857. T. J. Fuller, Andrew Derrybery, Thomas Anderson, A. W. Fuller and Henry Jones, were the first trustees. The church has property worth $1,600. Rev. E. B. McNeil is pastor.
The church at Woodland numbers eighty-five members, with church property valued at $1,000. It is under the pastoral care of J. P. Kincaid.
The church at Cane Creek was organized in 1846. The first preaching at this point was by Rev. Finlay, in 1837-38. R. J. Jennings now serves as pastor. The present membership is thirty-eight. The ground on which the present church stands was deeded to the deacons of the church, in 1871, by H. W. Shelton. Central Jackson Church was organized in 1880, by Dr. Frederick Howard. This church is near the public square, and the membership reported in 1885, was 157. By the clerk’s report, Clover Creek Church was constituted in 1826. The membership is 173, with J. P. Kincaid as pastor. The church at Independence numbers 113 members. It belongs to the Unity Baptist Association. The church at Liberty Grove numbers fifty-five members. The house was erected in 1854, Lewis Newsom, C. Nanny and Washington Shufeld being deacons at that time. Meridian Creek Church was constituted in 1881, and has a membership of thirty-eight. The church at Pinson was constituted in 1869. The membership is seventy-three. The Baptist Church at Pleasant Ridge numbers thirty-nine members. It belongs to the Unity Baptist Association. Friendship is a church of forty members. Its pastor is Rev. G. A. West. The church property is valued at $800. The church at Lavenia numbers ninety-four members. It owns church property worth $1,040. The church at New Liberty was constituted in 1884. Its membership is thirty-four. The church at Pleasant Plains numbers 122 members, with E. B. McNeil as pastor. The Church property is valued at $1,000. The church at Poplar Corner was organized in 1878. The membership is 145, and church property is valued at $1,000. The church at Spring Creek numbers 111 members. Their church property is valued at $800. There is also a church of nine members at Oak Grove.
The first Methodist Church in Jackson was organized at the court house in the fall of 1826, with eight members. Among them were Joseph Douglas and wife, Wyatt Epps and wife, and Robert Brown. The society was organized by Rev. Thomas Neeley. Services were either held at private houses or at the court house till the building of Temperance Hall about 1831. In 1851 this old church was sold by A. W. Jones, J. C. Sharp and Milton Brown, trustees of the church, to Jackson Sons of Temperance, for $1,900, and the lot where the present church stands was purchased. On this a new church was erected by the Brown brothers and Newells. Recent additions have been made to the church to the amount of $10,000. It is furnished with a pipe organ and seated with chairs, and is one of the most elegantly furnished in the city. The membership of the church is 352. It also maintains a flourishing Sunday school. There are Methodist Churches in both East and West Jackson, the membership of the two aggregating about 250. The church property of the two is valued at $2,000.
The Jackson Circuit contains four churches, and has a membership of over 400. The church property of the circuit is valued at $5,000.
The Spring Creek Circuit has four churches, and a membership of nearly 400, and property worth over $5,000.
The Mifflin Circuit contains four churches, and has a membership of 328, and church property worth $2,100. Pinson Circuit has 600 members and eight churches, and church property valued at $7,000. This vigorous branch of the church has a membership in the county of nearly 2,500, and houses in almost every part of the county.
The presbytery of Western District held its first session at New Shiloh Church, near Humbolt, on November 6, 1829. The churches within the bounds of the presbytery were twelve in number. The delegate to that presbytery from Jackson was James Greer. The church at that time numbered thirty-three members. The first ministers to preach at Jackson were David Kerr and Thomas Lynch. In 1830 the presbytery took decided grounds on the question of intemperance, and resolved itself into a temperance society. At the same time it took a stand on the slavery question, not as a political question, but as a moral one. It was intended to look to the spiritual welfare of the slave. It was resolved that the churches take up an annual collection on the Fourth of July, or the Sabbath nearest to it, for the "Colonization Society. It was believed that a new native party Christianized could be transplanted into the bosom of their native land, the Dark Continent, and thus become a mighty factor in communicating the gospel to the benighted millions of Africa." This church also took an early stand for an educated ministry. In 1831 the presbytery was held in the court house in Jackson. The first Presbyterian Church built in Jackson was in the early part of 1830. This has since been replaced by an elegant house worth at least $10,000. The members of this church have already embraced the leading families of Jackson. The present pastor is Rev. J. H. Nall, D.D. The membership of the church is 312. A flourishing Sabbath-school is also maintained. The church at Denmark was formerly called Hopewell. This was organized about 1827 or 1828. In 1829 its membership numbered eighteen. The church at that place was built on a lot purchased from Joab Wilson by John Wharton, John Trigg, John Stetson, John Johnson, John Ingram, Benj. Tyson, and Evans Mabrey, in April, 1833. The membership is 127, with S. W. Newell, pastor. The Presbyterians have a church at Spring Creek also, but its strength is not reported.
St Luke’s Parish, Jackson, was organized July 23, 1832, at the Masonic Hall, Rev. Thomas Wright, recently from North Carolina, presiding, and the following persons signed the articles of association: Maj. Andrew L. Martin, Robert Hughes, Jacob Perkins, J. H. Rawlings, Dr. Lewis Pender, Dr. Erasmus D. Fenner, John M. Fenner, William Taylor, Col. Joseph H. Talbot, James Miller, Dr. Wm. E. Butler, Dr. Atlas Jones, Hon. Joshua Haskell, Wm. Stoddert, Micajah Antrey, Mrs. Sophia Perkins and Mrs. Eliza G. Vaulx. Five vestrymen were elected at this time. August 6, Rev. John Chilton was chosen rector, who served both St. Luke and Brownsville till 1834. After one year the Rev. Thomas West was called to the parish, and remained through 1836-37. From 1832 to 1836 preaching was held at the court house. After February, 1837, Rev. West preached twice a month at the male academy, occasionally at the residence of Dr. John G. Chalmers, Mount Pinson, and at Col. Samuel Dickens’, near Spring Creek. Rev. West resigned his charge at the close of 1837. At the convention of the diocese, held at the court house in 1835, it was found that but two members lived in Jackson. An effort was made to build a church in 1836, but failed. The parish had no rector from 1837 to 1840. A few services were held by Rev. Abednego Stephens, in the fall of 1838, at the Methodist Church, and at the same place by Bishop Otey in 1839. In 1840 Rev. Chilton returned and preached once a month till his death, in August of that year. In 1842 Rev. Oliver H. Staples became rector, but resigned in about six months on account of ill-health. During his rectorship a Sunday-school was established, which is still maintained. Services were again held at the court house. From July, 1843, to January 1849, Rev. Louis Jansen was rector, serving the parishes both at Jackson and Brownsville. He resided for three years at Jackson, then at Brownsville. He also taught a female school. June 27, 1844, a lot was purchased of Granderson Spurlock, for $450, and the church edifice erected at a cost of $2,300. The brick work was done by John R. and Thomas G. Norvell, the wood work by W. F. Hampton and Francis Fogg, the painting by Jesse Russell and James A. Marks. It was ready for services, though not completed; in the fall of 1845. The convention of the diocese was held in this church in July, 1846. In April, 1849, Rev. John W. McCulloch, D.D., of Indiana, became rector, and held the position in connection ‘with a professorship in West Tennessee College till his resignation in June, 1854. The church was completed by the building of pews and a chancel, and furnished with an organ and bell, and was consecrated by the bishop May 14, 1854. In October, 1851, the parish was favored with a visit by the Right Rev. Wm. M. Green, of Mississippi, who confirmed eleven persons. April 23, 1855, Rev. John A, Harrison, of Ashwood, Tenn., became rector. In that year a parsonage was erected on a five-acre lot given by James L. Talbot, at a cost of about $3,350. In the early history of this parish, the parishioners labored under many difficulties from want of means and members. In 1837 the only communicants were Samuel Dickens and wife Fanny, Mrs. Ann Fenner and three daughters, Mrs. Eliza G. Vaulx, Mrs. Matilda Coor Pendler and Mrs. Indiana McKnight. The success of the church is largely due to the devotion of its female members; foremost among them was Mrs. Eliza G. Vaulx, who abounded in every good work from 1832 to her death in 1845. Rev. Dr. Harrison resigned December 14, 1880, to accept a call to Trinity Church, Demopolis, Ala. A recess chancel was added to the church building in 1869 at a cost of $1,500. In July, 1874, the rectory and grounds in the suburbs were sold, and the rectory grounds adjoining the building were purchased in August following. Dr. F. A. Shoup became rector February 21, 1881, and remained till February following, when he resigned to accept a call at New Orleans. Dr. Geo. W. Durnbell took charge of the parish February 15, 1882, and continued in charge till September 23, 1883. During his rectorship the church was enlarged, remodeled and beautified at a cost of about $7,000. Dr. Durnbell resigned to accept St. James’, Milwaukee, Wis., and Rev. George W. Hinkle took charge of the parish February 17, 1884. The convention of the diocese was held at St. Luke’s Church in May, when 240 communicants and everything in hopeful and prosperous condition was reported.
On February 19, 1872, the organization. of the first Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Jackson was effected. The articles of faith were signed by W. M. Dunaway, Sarah B. Dunaway and forty-three other members. The matter of organizing a church in Jackson was brought before the West Tennessee Synod, in 1868, by Rev. W. M. Dunaway. The proposition met the approval of the synod, and financial aid was promised. Revs. W. M. Dunaway and Pope, and B. G. McClesky were chosen a committee with power to begin the work. A lot was purchased on College Street, between Church and Royal, for $800. A building committee, of W. M. Dunaway, W. K. Walsh, John Y. Keith and J. W. Anderson, were appointed, who began at once to raise funds for a house of worship. A brick building, 36x65 feet, was begun and enclosed in 1871, when the work ceased temporarily for want of funds, but was resumed and the house completed in 1872. The dedicatory services were held in the church February 18, 1872. Rev. G. W. Mitchell preached the sermon. James W. Anderson, James F. Latham and Thomas B. Anderson were chosen elders. The deacons were Wm. D. Moxey, E. B. Carter and J. K. Landis. Rev. C. W. Mitchell was chosen first pastor. The number of communicants is now 160. There are good Cumberland Presbyterian Churches at Mount Tabor, Claybrook and Ebenezer.
The first church building by the Church of Christ was erected in Jackson, on the corner of Main and Cumberland Streets. This house is a neat frame building, about 40x50 feet, and it was completed in May, 1867. The erection of the house is due to J. D. Bond, B. F. Bond, R. W. Bond, R. W. Andrews, S. D. Andrews and G. B. Metcalf, who were the only male members then living in the city. The first sermon was preached by Elder T. W. Caskey, in May, 1867. No regular services were held till October, 1867. The first services were conducted without a pastor, by R. W. Bond. The first additions to the church were under the preaching of Elder R. B. Trimble. G. Hawkins and wife were the first members added. In May, 1868, R. F. Bond and R. W. Andrews were chosen elders, and J. D. Bond and J. W. Foster were chosen deacons. J. R. Wilkinson was appointed deacon in place of J. D. Bond, resigned, and W. B. McNabb was added to the number. The trustees chosen for the church were J. R. Wilkinson, Franklin Wilson and C. F. Landis. The membership of the church is about eighty in number.
The first worship by the Catholics in Jackson was in 1861. At that time there were but six families living in the place. Services were held first at the house of Mrs. Teague, near where Dr. Neely now lives. Father Daley was one of the first priests. A house and lot on the corner of Church Street, between Main and Lafayette, was soon after purchased for about $3,000, but unfortunately this was burned down. The lot was afterward sold, and the grounds on Royal Street, extending from Main to Baltimore, were purchased. The church has since built an elegant house of worship, priest’s residence, and also has a parochial school. Four Sisters are employed in teaching. The membership of the church is now quite large, and they own property worth at least $25,000. The present priest is Father Abbot. The Catholics also own their own cemetery, which covers ten acres of ground.