CONFEDERATE INFANTRY REGIMENT
Records filed as 1st (Turney's) Tennessee Infantry Regiment. Organized
at Winchester, Franklin County, TN, April 29, 1861; mustered into
Confederate service at Lynchburg, VA, May 8, 1861; surrendered at
Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865.
- Peter Turney
Colonels - James H. Holman, James C. Shackleford, Newton
- Daniel W. Holman, Martin V. McLaughlin, Newton J. George, Felix
- Alex E. Patton, Elijah Reynolds, Joseph A. Lusk, Jesse
R. Gunn, Co. "A". Men from Altamont, Hillsboro, and Pelham, (Grundy
County, Coffee County)
John E. Bennett, Thomas Daniel, William S. Daniel, Co. "B". Men from
Franklin County and Bedford Counties.
Miller Turney, A.T.W. Alexander, Samuel
H. Estill, Co. "C". Men from Winchester, Franklin County; "The Mountain
Littleberry N. Simpson, William J.
Awalt, John H. Bevill, Co. "D". Men from Moore County, then Franklin
Ezekiel Y. Salmon, Thomas H. Mann,
William P. Tolley, Owen J. Bailey, Co. "E". Men from Moore County, then
Franklin County; "The Lynchburg Rangers".
Clement Arledge, James H. Thompson, John
D. Bell, Co. "F". Men from Franklin County.
Benjamin F. Ramsey, John C. Shackleford,
Felix G. Buchanan, Davis W. Clark, Richard Routt, Co. "G". Men from
Lincoln County; "The Fayetteville Guards".
Jacob Cruse, Newton J. George, Young T.
Stubblefield, Thomas P. Arnold, Thomas B. George, Co. "H". Men from
Lincoln County; "The Shelton's Creek Volunteers".
Joseph Holder, Henry J. Hawkins, Co. "I". Men from Coffee County; "The
Tullahoma Guards". Newton C. Davis, Jacob B. Turney, Co. "K". Men from
Lincoln County; "The Boon's Creek Minutemen".
Practically simultaneously with the holding of a mass meeting in
Winchester on February 24, 1861, at which Franklin County petitioned to
be allowed to secede from Tennessee and join Alabama, then a
Confederate State, Peter Turney commenced the organization of a company
in Winchester, which was later to become "C" Company. Shortly
thereafter, other companies were formed in and around Winchester and in
the neighboring counties of Coffee and Grundy. Quickly after the fall
of Fort Sumter came the formation of four other companies to complete
On April 21, Colonel Turney reported to the Confederate War Department
that his regiment was organized, although without weapons. On April 28,
the regiment was assembled at Winchester, bivouacking on the grounds of
Mary Sharp College; on May 1, it departed by rail for the Virginia
theater. Six companies arrived at Lynchburg, Virginia, on May 5; the
remainder of the regiment shortly thereafter, when the regiment was
sworn into the Confederate service.
On May 17, the regiment was moved by rail to Richmond, where it went
into training camp, to be drilled by the detachment of cadets from the
Virginia Military Institute.
On June 1, the regiment moved by rail to Harper's Ferry, there to be
under the command of Brig. General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. In
July, it was moved to the locale of Manassas and, for the Battle of
First Manassas, was part of the 3rd Brigade (Bernard E. Bee),
Johnston's Division. The regiment remained in the Manassas area until
about September 30, when it moved to duty along the Potomac, between
Occoquan and Aquia Creeks. On January 10, 1862, it was part of the task
force of Brig. General William H.C. Whiting, at Dumfries, Virginia,
being placed, on February 9, under the command of Maj. General
Theophilus H. Holmes, commanding the Aquia District. At the same time,
the 1st Tennessee Infantry (Maney), 2nd Tennessee Infantry (Bate), and
3rd Tennessee Infantry (J.C. Vaughn), were detached from the Army of
Northern Virginia and returned to the Tennessee Theater, leaving the
1st Confederate Infantry, the 7th Tennessee Infantry, and the 14th
Tennessee Infantry as components of a brigade which was to serve, with
minor changes from time to time, during the rest of the war, and which
was to become known as the Tennessee Brigade, Army of Northern
Organization of the Tennessee Brigade was announced on March 8, 1862.
It's first commander was Brig. General Samuel R. Anderson; his
headquarters were at Evansport, now Quantico, Virginia. On March 8,
1862, the brigade was assigned to the division of Brigadier General
William H. C. Whiting.
Under General Anderson, the brigade entered the Peninsular Campaign as
part of A.P. Hill's "Light Division" of Magruder's Corps. It's initial
position was about midway between the York and James Rivers. Here the
regiment was reorganized; General Anderson was relieved from active
field service by reason of ill health (he was 58 years old and was
serving in his second war), and the brigade command passed to Brig.
General Robert H. Hatton, formerly colonel of the 7th Tennessee
General Hatton was killed in the fighting near Fair Oaks Station, May
31, 1862. By the time the brigade entered the Battle of Gaines' Mill,
June 27, it had a new brigade commander. This was Brig. General James
J. Archer; he was to retain command with several absences until
January, 1865. Under him the brigade was to make it's reputation.
As part of the Fifth (Archer's) Brigade, A.P. Hill's "Light Division",
Magruder's Corps, the regiment participated in the Seven Day's Battles
before Richmond. It's regimental flag was captured at Gaines' Mill by
the 13th New York Infantry. As part of the same brigade and division,
but now part of the II Corps (Thomas J. Jackson), Army of Northern
Virginia, it participated in Jackson's Valley Campaign at Cedar Run,
moving from there to the actions at Orange Courthouse, Manassas
Junction, and Second Manassas.
In September, the regiment, still in the II Corps, took part in the
Maryland Campaign, fighting at Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, and
Shepherdstown. Returning to Virginia, it was part of the II Corps at
the Battle of Fredericksburg. Here Colonel Turney sustained the wound
which removed him from active command; a year later he was to take over
a semi-administrative command in Florida.
During 1863, the regiment, now commanded by Lt. Colonel N.J. George,
continued as part of Archer's Brigade, but the division was commanded
by Henry Heth and the Corps was now the III, commanded by A.P. Hill
after the fall of Jackson at Chancellorsville. It participated in the
Gettysburg Campaign, where it was on the left flank during Pickett's
Charge on Jul 3, 1863. The 1st and 7th Tennessee Infantry Regiments
were the only units to breach the Federal lines that day, but at a high
price; the Brigade Commander, the Regimental Commander, a large number
of other officers and enlisted men, and the colors of the 1st and 14th
Regiments, were captured by the 14th Connecticut Infantry.
With Brig. General Henry H. Walker in command of the brigade, it
participated in the actions of the Army of Northern Virginia throughout
the remainder of 1863; these included the Mine Run Campaign and the
Battle of Bristoe Station. Major Felix G. Buchanan commanded the
As part of Archer's Brigade, later to be known as Fry's Brigade, made
by combining the brigades of Archer and Fields, the regiment took part
in the Battles in The Wilderness and at Spottsylvania Courthouse in
May, 1864. By August, 1864, Colonel George had returned to command the
regiment. By this time the regiment, still a part of Hill's III Corps,
had moved through the Battle of Cold Harbor into the bloody stalemate
of Petersburg, which continued until early April, 1865. General Archer
had returned to his old command briefly in August; the illnesses
brought on by his long confinement at Johnson's Island shortly forced
his retirement; he died at Richmond in October. Captain William S.
Daniel commanded the regiment until the return of Colonel George.
In January, 1865, consolidation of the diminished strength of the Army
of Northern Virginia brought about the formation of Archer's and
Johnson's Brigade, still in Heth's Division of the III Corps. Beside
this regiment were it's old companions of the original Tennessee
Brigade, the 7th and the 14th Tennessee Infantry, plus the 2nd Maryland
Infantry Battalion, the 17th/23rd Tennessee Infantry, the 25th/44th
Tennessee Infantry, and the 63rd Tennessee Infantry.
Withdrawing toward Appomattox early in April, the brigade came under
the command of Brig. General William McComb; Major Felix G. Buchanan
was now in command of the regiment. This was the composition of the
brigade as it passed out of existence with Lee's Surrender.