CHAPTER XXVIII.

 

The Heroes and Heroines of Carter and Johnson Counties in the Civil War.

 
 
We approach this subject with much distrust of our ability to do justice to these people. We usually speak of a hero or heroine as some great or distinguished man or woman whose name is upon every lip, and whose praise is heard throughout the land, but there are other heroes and heroines whose praise has never been sung and whose names have never been honored. He or she who performed a brave deed for country's or humanity's sake, though unknown outside the neighborhood in which the deed was done, is as truly a hero or a heroine as though th whole world looked on and applauded the deed. The world is indebted for its advancement largely to the heroic deeds of men and women in the humble walks of life. The fame of the heroes of the past which has survived the destroying influences of time is due in a great measure to the ability of their historians and the attractive manner in which the stories of their deeds have been told. Some have been perpetuated in song and poetry and embellished with the beautiful language of the poets, which has rendered them immortal. Who has not read "Paul Revere's Ride," immortalized by Longfellow? The Civil War produced many Paul Reveres in Carter and Johnson counties who, with flying steeds, rode through the darkness and storm, or with tireless limbs climbed the rugged mountain side to warn the hunted refugees of the approach of the soldiers or Indians, but we have not the gift to tell their story as it should be told. We know of the happy contented people in these counties before the Civil War, but it would require a Goldsmith or Robert Burns to describe their happiness, their simple lives, their cheerful songs, their hospitality, their love of country and their faith in God.

Again, we know that time and space as well as our inability to secure the names of all will compel us to omit many names that should be mentioned and fail to give extended notice of many others who are entitled to much honor and praise. But we give here many incidents and names that will recall to the memory of those still living who can remember the Civil War, some brave and noble men and women. We trust their names will be read in these pages long after the last survivors of the Civil War shall have passed away.

Incidents that occurred in the vicinity of Elizabethton. 7th and 15th Civil Districts of Carter Co., Tenn.:

This town, at the beginning of the Civil War, was a village of 300 or 400 inhabitants. It is situated near the confluence of the Doe and Watauga rivers. A channel for a race, known as Carter's race, has been made at the south end of the town leading a part of the water of Doe river along the base of the Lynn mountain on the east side of town and emptying into the Watauga river at the north end of town. The main part of Doe river making a bend some distance below where the race leaves it, also empties into the 'Watauga river a short distance west of the mouth of the race, thus forming an island containing an area of about So acres, on which all of the town was located then. The town did not cover all the island at the time of the war, a large field at the north end of it being used for agricultural purposes. Since the war this ha all been built up and the town extended to the west side of Doe river where there are now a number of manufacturing plants, including a large saw mill, flouring mill and cotton mill, the Tennessee Line and Twine Works, chair factory and pants factory. The town has now (1902) a population of about 1500.

On the north of the town is the Holston mountain, a beautiful range just far enough in the distance to make a lovely landscape, immediately to the east and extending to the edge of the town is the abrupt termination or "cut off" of the Lynn mountain rising to an altitude of several hundred feet. On the south are the Iron and Jenkins mountains in the distance, while to the westward are undulating hills, glades and valleys. The altitude of the town is 1549 feet, the climate mild and healthy, the water pure and plentiful and the soil rich and fertile, while the scenery around is indescribably beautiful and enchanting.

When the war came the town and the fertile valleys extending many miles along the rivers above and below it were inhabited by a class of people, many of whom were well educated and well-to-do in the world, some of them slaveholders. The people were more divided in sentiment here than in any other part of the county. Yet a large majority of them remained loyal to the Union, among whom were some of the largest land and slave owners, and those who were highly educated and among the most prominent and leading citizens. Such were the people and surroundings, among whom, and where many of the incidents we are about to relate occurred.

THE FIRST CONFEDERATE FLAG.

The first Confederate flag, as far as we know, ever publicly displayed in Elizabethton was brought there by William J. Stover, an enthusiastic young Secessionist, who lived on the Watauga river, four miles east of the town. At that time George W. Ryan had a blacksmith shop on the street leading past what is now known as the Snyder House, and on past the Duffreld Academy. Young Stover came into town with the flag and when he reached Ryan's shop, the latter halted him and told him he could not take that flag any further into town. Stover told him he was on his way to Zollicoffer and was only going through that street. He went on as far as Main street and turned south and went beyond the public square, waving the flag and shouting for Jeff. Davis. Ryan met him near the corner where Mrs. Doctor Cameron now lives as he was returning and began throwing stones at him. Stover turned out that street and ran into a woodpile where his horse fell with him, but he finally made his escape closely pursued out of town by Ryan.

HOW THE PRISONERS ESCAPED.

After the Carter county rebellion the arrests of Union men were so frequent that notwithstanding the prisoners were sent on .to Knoxville as rapidly as possible the jail at Elizabethton would not hold them, and it often became necessary to keep them under guard. William M. Gourley, Andrew C. Fondren, Lawson F. Hyder and Isaac Ellis were captured a day or two before Christmas in 1861. The two former were reported as bridge-burners and it was said they were to be shot on Christmas day. The following plan was devised for their escape: Some of the Union girls arranged to have a party at the home of William Hawkins on Christmas Eve and invited the rebel guards and other rebel soldiers to attend. The guards were also invited to the home of James Perry, a Union man, who lived near town, for supper. Perry had provided some good apple brandy to treat them, hoping to get them intoxicated so the prisoners could get away. The guards and prisoners ate supper and drank together and then went to Hawkins' to the party, where Wm. Hawkins and William Shell again treated them to liquor. They were feeling pretty merry by this time and the girls invited them to engage in a play or dance called "Weavily Wheat." The guards and prisoners all joined in the play except William Gourley. It was understood that he was to be on the watch and give the signal when to make a break for liberty. Finally the prisoners and girls commenced singing at the top of their voices and coming clown on the floor with their feet with a vengeance; Gourley managed to touch the other prisoners and make a break for the door, the others following. The guards were pretty drunk by this time and the girls kept up the singing and dancing so they did not catch on to the scheme until three of the prisoners had got out into the darkness and were soon safe on the Lynn mountain. The third man, Ellrs, did not get away but he was not an important prisoner and managed to make his escape the next day.

The girls engaged in this affair, as well as can be remembered now, were: Misses Sarah Folsom, Eliza O'Brien, Margaret and Lydia Barker, Jennie Garrison, Politha and Hester Heatherly and Loyette Hilton.

FLAG-POLES CUT DOWN.

A tall flag-pole was erected near the southwest corner of the public square in Elizabethton in 1861, and the National flag floated on it until after the Carter county rebellion in November of that year. When the Confederate troops came to that place November 17, 1861, after dispersing the Union men at Doe River Cove, they cut the pole down and tore up the National flag. The same pole was raised in the center of the public square and a Confederate flag hoisted. Though martial law had been proclaimed, a Provost Marshal appointed and Confederate troops stationed in the town, Charles Gourley and W. G. Merideth, two brave Union men, watched an opportunity and cut the pole down one night and carried off the Confederate flag. The next day L. W. Fletcher, another Union man, finding the soldiers out of town, cut the pole up and remarked that he was going to make it into rails "and fence in the Southern Confederacy."

DR. WILLIAM C. SINGLETARY.

Dr. Singletary was the son of Rev. John Singletary, a well-known and highly respected Methodist minister of Elizabethton who died December 5, 186o. Dr. Singletary was raised in Elizabethton, studied medicine there and practiced medicine in Carter county for many years. He moved to Arkansas in 1859. The rebel sentiment was strong in the locality where he lived, but the few Union men there, Dr. Singletary among others, held secret meetings to discuss plans for their safety. They were arrested, chained together and taken to Georgia and forced to join the army. He finally got a position as Surgeon in the Confederate army. Later he got a furlough to visit his mother at Elizabethton, who had been an invalid for many ears. When his furlough expired he scouted in the mountains with the Union men, rendering much assistance to those who were sick. When the Federal soldiers came in he came to Elizabethton to remain with his invalid mother. The troops fell back and before he was aware of it the town was full of rebel soldiers. He made his escape dressed in woman's apparel and made his way to Knoxville.

Dr. Singletary died at his home at Sulphur Springs, Ark., May 9, 1894.

M. D. L. CAMERON.

Mr. Cameron was a native of Carter county, Tenn., having been born and raised in Elizabethton. His father, Jacob Cameron, who died a few years before the commencement of the Civil War, was a prominent and highly respected citizen, and was also a slave owner. His mother, Mrs. Jane Cameron, owned slaves when the war began, but her three sons, Lafayette, Dr. James M. and John W. Cameron, were all enthusiastic Union men.

Lafayette Cameron was a merchant in Elizabethton at the beginning of the war and his place of business was the resort of leading Union men where they met to consult about the state of affairs and lay plans for their mutual protection. The plans for the burning of the Zollicoffer bridge were discussed there by Col. Stover and others, and Mr. Cameron took an active part in their execution, being one of the men who put the torch to the bridge. He was also one of the parties recognized by Jenkins, the bridge guard. Mr.' Cameron not being a man of a rugged constitution, and being unused to the cold and exposure which his situation at that time necessitated, fell a victim to consumption and died at the home of Mr. Smitherman, a loyal man and a friend of Mr. Cameron who resided in .what was then the Limestone Cove in Carter county, Term.

LIEUT. F. S. SINGLETARY.

Though a very young man F. S. Singletary was a member of the Greeneville Union Convention, participated in the Carter county rebellion and was an officer rn the 4th Tennessee Infantry. After the war he represented Carter county in the General Assembly of the State. He moved to Kansas in 1877; was elected County Attorney of Osage county and at the time of his death, which occurred at his home in Linden, Kan., May 4, 1881, he was a prominent lawyer and politician. We make special mention of the Singletarys because they were loyal men and were at one time honored citizens of Elizabethton, and because, in the death of Thomas Singletary, of Yancy county, N. C., in February, 1899, the only son of Dr. W. C. Singletary, the last male citizen bearing that name, passed away.

Col. N. G. Taylor and Rev. W. B. Carter were orators of a high order and became well known from their prominence throughout the State and Nation; the latter figures prominently in our history of the bridge-burning. Dr. Abram Jobe has been prominently mentioned in that connection as well as Col. Daniel Stover. Hon. Abraham Tipton and Charles P. Toncray were active members of both the Knoxville and Greeneville conventions. Hon. Albert J. Tipton and Hon. Hamilton C. Smith were among the most active and influential advisers and promoters of the Union cause, and were two of the men held as hostages when Elbridge Tipton was abducted by the Heatherlys. Rev. J. H. Hyder wielded a large influence as a citizen and an educated minister of the Gospel; he was unfaltering in his devotion to the Union, and untiring in his efforts to aid and befriend the Union people. Benjamin F. Treadway, M. L. Cameron, James P. Scott, B. M. G. O'Brien and John F. Burrow, as has been noted elsewhere, were among the brave men "that took their lrves in their hands" to aid the Government by burning the Zollicoffer bridge, they were in the Carter county rebellion and active in all the adventures of the period.

O'Brien was afterwards a citizen-aide on the staff of Gen. S. P. Carter. Peter W. Emmert and James P. Tipton were two other ministers who gave their means and influence to the cause. W. R. Fitzsimmons, though a most retired citizen, gave his sympathy and aid, and the benefit of a cultured mind, to the Union cause, though he was an extensive slave-owner for this section of country. Jas. I. R. Boyd was prominent in the Carter county rebellion and afterwards a gallant officer in the army. Other men who deserve notice in this vicinity for their devotion to the Union cause, for their suffering and heroism, and for lending a helping hand to refugees and scouters were: Alfred M. Taylor, James Perry, D. P. Wilcox, John M. Smith, John J. Edens, William J. Folsom, John Helton, Jr., Col. J. G. Fellers, H. C. Beasley, William Burrow, Samuel Angel, James J. Angel, Abram Hart, Leander Hatcher, John C. Scott, Findley Smith, J. D. Smith, William Colbough, Williams Cass, William P. Badgett, John Aldridge, Henderson Roberts, \William Hawkins, James Holly and David Holly, his son, Samuel O'Brien, Samuel Tipton, Richard Douthat, Thomas C. Johnson, William Shell (conscripted finally and served in the Confedrate army), James and Jobe Newton, Nicholas Carriger and Theophilus H. Roberts, William J. and A. R. P. Toncray, L. F. and A. J. Hyder, John Roberts, William Dawson, David A. Taylor, William Ryan, Harrison H. Price, William J. Jordan, William Marsh.

Many of the above named men for various reasons did not join the army, but each one of them braved the dangers of the hour; some were captured and imprisoned, others were refugees at different imes; all were heroes and each performed his duty to his country and to humanity; some befriending and sharing their means with the hungry and starving; piloting refugees and escaped prisoners to Dan. Ellis, to be taken through the lines. All risked their lives and suffered in many ways for the cause they loved.

John Helton, Jr., was the gallant Captain of cavalry in the Carter county rebellion. He took fever and died in July, 1863.

Findley Smith was captured and died in prison.

Among the older men who though advanced in years were the mainstay and support of the brave women and the children and the sick and helpless, especially in the last years of the war, and who were brave and fearless and true to their country were: James L. Bradley, Mathias Keen, Joseph Taylor, Joseph O'Brien, Pleasant Williams (Doe River), Samuel Patterson, John Minor, Jackson Jordan, Thomas Gourley, John Helton, Sr., John Crumley, Isaac Miller. Upon these men devolved the duty of caring for and protecting as far as they could the women and children, looking after the business interests of their absent sons or relatives and caring for their property, attending to the farms, aiding the sick and burying the dead.

HEROINES.

We give the names of some of the noble women in the two counties of Carter and Johnson, and only regret we can not follow them, one and all, as they went through the fiery ordeal of the Civil War, facing every danger, toiling and praying for the loved ones, dispensing love and sunshine in their pathway. Their names should be written in letters of gold on imperishable parchment, or engraver on enduring metal that time cannot efface. They heard the roar of cannon and the rattle of musketry that told of battle and death. They witnessed bloody tragedies. They saw their loved ones imprisoned. They saw them brought home dead. They heard the tramp of armed men and the clanking of arms and the shouts of soldiers and the groans of the dying. They witnessed the cruelties of civil war in all its horrors and hideousness. They saw the dead bodies of men who had been hung or shot, sometimes their own friends or relatives, and yet they lived through it all. They were familiar with danger and strangers to fear. They went out into the darkness and storm to aid the suffering. They ventured into dangers from which brave men recoiled. They seemed to require no rest but were always on the alert. They waited on the sick, dressed the wounds of those who had been shot and sometimes had to bury the dead with their own hands. They cooked and fed Union men who were in hiding and men who had escaped from prison, often piloting them to places of safety. Among those who received the care and hospitality of the loyal women of these counties were Albert D. Richardson, the gifted war correspondent of the "New York Tribune" and author of "The Field, Dungeon and Escape," and Junius Henri Browne, the brilliant war correspondent of the "New York Herald."

We give first the names of those who lived at Elizabethton and in that vicinity: Mrs. Elizabeth and Evaline Carter, Mrs. Emma Taylor, Mrs. Sophronia Jobe, Mrs. Mary Stover, Mrs. Catherine Tipton, Mrs. Susan Fellers, Mrs. Edna Edens, Mrs. Joanna Tipton, Mrs. Jane Cameron, Mrs. Mary Ann Singletary, Mrs. Eliza Cameron, Mrs. Laura Cameron, Mrs. Margaret Toncray, Mrs. Martha Tipton, Mrs. Nancy Johnson, Mrs. Catherine Patterson, Mrs. Elizabeth Bradley, Mrs. Martha G. Angel, Mrs. Matilda Burrow, Mrs. Jane J. Scott, Mrs. Eliza Hawkins, Mrs. Mary Burrow, Mrs. Elizabeth Ryan, Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, Mrs. Nancy Barker, Mrs. Martha Perry, Mrs. Mary Hart, Mrs. Nancy Roberts, Mrs. Elizabeth Hyder, Mrs. Emily Collins, Mrs. Martha Hatcher, Mrs. Rosanna Taylor, Mrs. Margaret Toncray, Mrs. Mary Cameron, Mrs. Margaret Jobe, Mrs. Hester Williams, Mrs. Sarah Keen, Mrs. Susan Beasley, Mrs. Nancy Tipton, Mrs. Matilda Wilcox, Mrs. Evaline Treadway, Mrs. Lucy Wilcox, Mrs. Lucy Turner, Mrs. Janes Minor, Mrs. Timanda Badgett, Mrs. Dorcas Gourley, Mrs. Mary Hilton, Mrs. Eliza Douthat, Mrs. Mary Angel, Mrs. William Cass. and Misses Mary and Eva Taylor, Miss Sarah Folsom, Miss Eliza O'Brien, Miss Emma Jobe, Miss Lizzie Cameron, Misses Margaret and Lydia Barker, Miss Mary George, Misses Seraphina, Ann M. and Addie Johnson, Misses Agnes, Elmira and Latitia Roberts, Misses Politha and Hester Heatherly, Miss Mattie Tipton, Misses Cordelia and Amanda Hyder, Misses Susan and Mary Angel, Miss Alice Angel, Miss Cordelia Bradley, Miss Jennie Garrison, Misses Sue and Sallie Smith, Miss Mary R. Toncray, Miss Emma Roberts, Miss Emma Burrow. These ladies, old and young, performed deeds which, had they been done in ordinary times, would have won for them great honor and distinction, but in those perilous times brave deeds were done and little notice taken of them. It has been truly said of woman that she is timid and often shrinks from trivial or imaginary danger, but when confronted with great peril she rises to the occasion and displays the greatest courage and heroism. In the Civil War they were the sentinels on the watch-tower when every hour was fraught with danger and dread. Midnight, as well as midday, found them at their post, ready at the approach of danger to rush to the rescue of father, brother or friend, whether in the darkness of the night, the raging storm or in the face of a relentless enemy. They never deserted the side of a father, brother or friend, no odds how great the threatened danger, but clung the closer to him. If we could but relate the stories or picture the scenes they passed through they would startle those who have known women only in time of peace. Imagine a hunted refugee, pursued by soldiers or Indians, taking refuge in a house whose on 'y tenant is a woman—her husband or sons not daring t3 remain at home—the pursuers follow the refugee into the house, demand in angry tones and with guns in their hands to know where the man is hidden. Does she quail before them and scream and point out the trembling victim to be dragged off to prison or death? You answer yes, what else could she do? She is but a woman. But he is her neighbor's boy, a youth, not long ago a mere boy —she knows him well. She calmly faces the men and tells them the boy passed through the house. She says to them with the greatest carelessness of manrla, "Don't you see he is not in here ?" They pass on through and search the barn and out-houses, and when they are gone the boy is hidden more securely to await a chance to escape. He was behind the door and the lady kept between him and the soldiers and her cool indifferent manner deceived them, and so she saved her neighbor's son. Was she not a heroine? Nor is this story a romance. Captain S. H. Hendrix was the youth, and Mrs. Christina Scott, of Turkey Town then, (now we trust a saint in heaven), was the lady.

Illustrative of woman's courage in the hour of danger we will relate an incident witnessed by ourselves, and the lady (lately deceased) was born and raised at Elizabethton, and her name is familiar to many people there now. Before it was quite daylight on the morning of December loth, 1864, the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry charged into the town of Marion, Va., and got mixed up with the enemy in the darkness. Bullets were whistling through the streets, sabres were clashing, and soldiers were fighting and dead bodies lying in the streets. Some soldiers had, or were attempting to set fire to a building. A lady was pleading with them not to burn it. One of the officers recognizing her voice rode up to her, and making himself known, told her peremptorily that she must leave there or she would be killed. The lady was Miss Mary Johnson, and she was trying to save the home of a friend and seemed utterly oblivious of her own danger.

OTHER INCIDENTS AT ELIZABETHTON.

Samuel Angel was a well known and highly respected citizen of Elizabethton. He was a Union man and had two sons, Adjutant S. P. and James R. Angel in the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry. A few days before the killing of Reese and Benjamin Bowers (about September, 1863, ) the Johnson county home-guards came down in the vicinity of Elizabethton on a marauding and murdering expedition. Two of them went to the home of Mr. Angel one Sunday evening and asked for supper. The two young daughters, Susan and Mary, got their supper awl treated them pleasantly as they could. Unfortunately they made Rio, instead of rye coffee that was in common use at that time. This gave them a hint that the sons had probably sent the coffee home, and perhaps other things to the family, knowing they were in the army.

The next evening, after dark, two men (supposed to be the same ones) came back and called Mr. Angel out of the house. When he came out they took hold of him in a rough .manner, called him a Lincolnite and told him they wanted his money. They fired off their pistols to intimidate him and frighten the family away so they could rob the house of anything valuable it might contain. In the scuffle with the men Angel managed to get his pocketbook out of his pocket and drop it on the ground, but it being dark they did not see it. Finding no money on his person they let him loose.

Angel was a man of courage and not easily intimidated. He ran into the house and got his gun and fired at the men, but it being dark missed them. They left hurriedly but came back with more men, and went into the house and rifled the drawers, taking coffee, sugar and everything they could find, including the clothing of Mrs. Angel who had recently died. In the meantime the family had left the house and Mr. Angel ran down the street to try to get protection from the rebel citizens, some of whom were closely related to him. He was seen running by another one of this gang, who raised his gun to shoot him, but was prevented from doing so by William G. Bowers, who was a rebel soldier (having been conscripted), but who knew Mr. Angel to be a peaceable man, and a good citizen.

A number of rebel citizens, including James A. Burrow, brother-in-law of Angel, Geo. W. and H. M. Folsom and Dr. H. T. Berry went to Angel's house and told the family they should be protected. They also had the clothing that had been taken away returned. Mr. Angel thought best to keep out of the way until the excitement subsided.

The children, six in number, including Cary Jordan, a grand-child, came back to the house that night. The two girls were the oldest, the others were boys ranging in age from six to fifteen years. Some of the neighbors came on to remain with them during the night. About midnight two of the men came back to the house and asked if Mr. Angel was there. They came in and sat down and told the girls they were going to burn the house the next morning. While they were there Mr. Angel came into an adjoining room and set his gun down, but discovered that some men were there before they discovered him, and left the house without the men knowing he was there. It is probable they had come to kill him and would have done so had they found him.

At the time of Mrs. Angel's death, July 20, 1863, guards were placed around the house hoping to capture the sons who it was thought would try to get home to take a last look at their dead mother!

Besides the sorrow brought to this family by the Civil War, death made two sad inroads into it, taking first the mother, Mrs. Martha Angel, July 20, 1863, and then a sister, Mrs. Ann M. Ellis, wife of Captain John W. Ellis, in June, 1865.

Mrs. Mary A. Singletary was a most highly respected widow lady who lived at Elizabethton at the time of the Civil War. She had a son, Lieut. F. S. Singletary, in the Federal army, and also a son-in-law, George W. Ryan. Mrs. Ryan moved into the house with her mother in the absence of her husband.

At one time a rebel officer with a squad of soldiers came to the house in search of the son, who he heard had been seen at home. These men usually looked out for coffee, sugar or any other valuables they might "confiscate," for the property of Union people at that time was considered a lawful prize to whatever marauder could find it first. On this occasion Mrs. Singletary had a quantity of coffee stored in a closet under the stairway. They told the member of the family who was piloting them through the house to open the closet; this was done with the remark, "You are welcome to all you can find in there." This threw them off their guard and they did not find the coffee.

They looked up the chimney to see what they could find there. Mrs. Singletary's young granddaughter told the officer she never heard of but one man hiding up the chimney and he was a rebel. She added, "Union men have got too much sense to do that."

At another time a rebel officer who desired to punish Mrs. Ryan because her husband had gone to the Federal army came and told Mrs. Singletary that if she did not throw her daughter's plunder out into the street he would burn the house down over her head. She told him he would have to burn it then. She said: "I cannot turn my daughter and her little children out of my house; if we have to suffer we will all suffer together." These were brave words, and even the officer was seemingly touched by them as the house was not burned.

O'BRIEN'S FORGE, 14TH CIVIL DISTRICT OF CARTER COUNTY.

This place is now known as Valley Forge, and is on the Doe River, three miles south of Elizabethton. Near this place was the home of Daniel Ellis, the noted pilot. It was near this place the men would meet before starting together on the long and perilous trip across the mountains and rivers to where they hoped to reach a place of safety and freedom.

THE REBEL SOLDIER.

We will relate an incident that occurred near Valley Forge, illustrating the heroism displayed by a young lady.

At one time a company of Morgan's men were stationed at Elizabethton. They often got meals and feed for their horses at the homes of the Union people. These men, as a rule, were more gentlemanly and treated the Union people more kindly than other rebel soldiers that were stationed there had done, and in turn the people treated them better. One of them had frequently stopped at the home of James G. Smith, a well-known Union man who lived near Valley Forge. He became well acquainted with Mr. Smith's family and knowing they were loyal people confided to them that he was not at heart a rebel; that he believed the Union cause was right, and if he could get with Dan. Ellis he would leave the Confederate army and go through the lines. At first Mr. Smith was not disposed to trust him but he appeared so honest and manly he gained his confidence and finally told him if he was sincere in the matter he would assist him any way he could.

Soon after this the man came to Smith's house and said he had left his command and wanted to be shown to Ellis or find some place where he could conceal himself from his late comrades until Ellis could take him through the lines. It happened that it was known to Smith that Ellis was a few miles from there with a company of men ready to start through the lines. But he could not direct the man so that he could find Ellis alone, besides being a stranger to them it would not be safe to go there by himself. The night was dark and stormy, and Smith, who was advanced in years, did not feel able to go with him and there was no other boy or man on the place. The man knowing that he was liable to be missed and followed at any moment showed much uneasiness and expressed treat regret that he had no one to take him. At this juncture one of Mr. Smith's daughters, Miss Margaret, who was familiar with every road and bridle-path in the neighborhood volunteered to act as his guide. Mounting one of her father's horses she led the way through the darkness and rain, over the hills and through the woods she conducted the man safely to Ellis and returned to her home alone. Thus this brave girl aided the Union cause by taking from the Confederate army an unwilling soldier, and in all probability he joined the other side.

The women in this locality were often called upon to prepare rations for large companies of men, enough to last them several days. Often a single family would cook and prepare five days' rations for as many as ten or fifteen men. They would send to them baskets full of boiled ham, bread, pies and vegetables. This they did cheerfully and without pay.

We give the names of those we remember who lived in the vicinity of Valley Forge during the Civil War, and there is not one among them who did not aid to his utmost the cause of the Union, or would not brave any dangers to succor the conscripts and refugees: William X. O'Brien, James G. Smith, John C. and Robert A. Smith, Abram and Elijah Hathaway, John Bayless, Elbert Range, David S. Hilton, James Garrison, Alfred Williams, John Grindstaff, James and Joseph Hyder, Wiley Ellis, James McCathern, Virgil Morris, Elisha Collins, Eli Fletcher, Mordicai Williams, Brownlow Fair, Chris, Simerly, Jehu Humphreys. We give here the name of some of the wives and daughters of these men, each of whom did many heroic deeds like the one we have narrated, had we time and space to tell them: Mrs. Elizabeth and Mrs. Rosanna Smith, Mrs. Ann O'Brien, Mrs. Martha Ellis, Mrs. Hannah Garrison, Mrs. Sarah Bayless, Mrs. Celia Humphreys, Mrs. Jane Hathaway, Mrs. Margaret and Eliza Jane Hyder, Mrs. Louisa Campbell, Mrs. Nora Williams, Mrs. Vina Fletcher, Mrs. Eliza Humphrey, Mrs. 011ie Hilton, Mrs. Hugh Jenkins, Mrs. Salina Collins, Mrs. Sabina Grindstaff, and Misses Mary, Caroline and Margaret Smith, Miss Minerva Ellis, Misses Rebecca, Alpha and Sarah McCathern, Miss Jane O'Brien, Miss Ann Barnes.

Francis Humphrey, a young son of Young Humphrey (the latter died while a member of Company A. Thirteenth Tennesse Cavalry), kept a boat near O'Brien's Forge for the purpose of taking Union men and refugees across Doe River as they passed back and forth at night to see Dan. Ellis. Though a mere boy then he was implicitly trusted by Ellis and all the Union people. He now lives neat Jefferson City, Tenn.

CRAB ORCHARD, 2D AND 3D CIVIL DISTRICTS OF CARTER COUNTY.

The entire country along the East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad from what is now known as Crab Orchard Station in Carter county to the North Carolina line southeast of Shell Creek was known as the Crab Orchard during the Civil War. This is for the most part a rugged country, but presents most magnificent scenery. There is a place on this narrow-gauge road called the "Gorge" that is the wonder of travelers now, it was often the retreat of refugees in those days, but now the little engine pursues a steep, narrow and tortuous track through the tunnels and along the mountain side where naked cliffs rise perpendicularly for hundreds of feet, and the little river (Doe) tumbles along among the large boulders far below. The scenery is said by experienced travelers to equal iii grandeur that of any ever seen, though not as extensive and imposing as at some places they have been. Here the Roan Mountain rises in majestic grandeur to an altitude of 6394 feet, and upon its summit is built a summer hotel known as "Cloudland," which is said to be "the highest human habitation east of the Rocky Mountains." In the valleys of the mountains along the Doe river are fertile coves where many prosperous farmers dwelt before the war. When the war came the mountains were a favorite hiding place for escaped prisoners, conscripts and refugees. Finding it difficult to find these men the Confederate authorities conceived the idea of bringing into these mountains some ignorant and half-civilized Indians, belonging to an organization known as Thomas' Legion, from Cherokee county, N. C. Indians were always noted for cruelty and cunning and for their ability to move stealthily through the woods and come unawares upon an enemy. So many stories had been told of their cruelty and savage character that it was supposed the very name of Indians would strike terror to the conscripts and induce them to come in and give themselves up. They were brought into Carter county about the month of May, 1863, and were in command of Captain Walters, from Georgia, who had command of two or three companies of white Confederate cavalry besides one or two companies of Indians, the latter being directed or commanded by Lieut. R. P. Tipton, of Carter county, during the time this force was engaged in conscript hunting. In justice to the latter officer, Lieut. Tipton, who met a tragic fate afterwards at the hands of the Heatherly's we have been told he did not approve of all the harsh measures of Walters' towards the Union people.

Starting out from Elizabethton. this company had reached a point about six miles from what is now, Roan Mountain Station when a widow by the name of Hannah Wilson, who was a brave Union woman, had started in the direction of Elizabethton on horseback, saw the Indians coming and knowing there were many Union men in hiding near Roan Mountain she wheeled her horse in the road, and the better to keep her seat on the horse adjusted herself on him man-fashion or astride, and laying whip soon spread the news of the approach of the Indians for miles around, and no doubt saved many Union men from being captured.

A young man named Noah Cade, who was raised by Jesse White, and who had been captured by them made his escape in the following manner: They were at White's house and had ordered Mrs. Lottie White to prepare them something to eat. It was late in the evening and Mrs. White said to the young man in the presence of the officer: "Run up on the hill and bring the cows, I will have to have some milk." He was afraid to leave his guard, and she said: "Don't you hear the bell, go on." The boy started and the officer supposing he would be back in a few minutes with the cows let him go. She managed to speak to him at the back of the house and told him not to return. The officer was highly enraged, but the young man joined the 3d North Carolina (Union) Regiment and made a brave soldier.

These Indians were taken into every part of Johnson and Carter counties and spread terror and dismay wherever they went, especially among the women who had no protection, and who had heard so many stories of their cruelty. But they were too ignorant to know for what purpose they were being used and later in the war they joined the Federal army and were employed by Col. Kirk to frighten and harass the people who had first employed them. Another instance of evil deeds coming home to haunt and terrify their authors.

The following is a list of the brave men and women who resided in the Crab Orchard during the Civil War, as far as we can obtain them, and performed countless deeds of humanity and heroism and who suffered untold agony and anxiety, suffering and destitution for their country: James Julian and wife, Jesse S. and Lottie White, John Lacy and wife, Jacob and Nancy Perkins, Emaline Caraway and Hannah Wilson (widows), Hamilton and Emaline Ray, Andrew Buck and Mrs. Buck, George and Sarah Snyder, John K. and Ann Smith, Russell and Mary Cordell, David and Lorena Stout, Wright and Mary Moreland, Elijah and Lorena Smith, James and Ann Orr, Francis and Jane Hampton, Nathaniel Simerly and wife, Absalom Miller and wife, William and David Simerly, James Holly and wife.

Andrew Buck was taken out and hanged until he was black in the face by Walters to make him tell where his sons were concealed.

DOE RIVER COVE, 11TH CIVIL DISTRICT, CARTER COUNTY.

The town of Hampton, Term., situated six miles south of Elizabethton, Tenn., was known during the Civil War as Doe River Cove. There were many clever and well-to-do people in this neighborhood and all were loyal to the Union as far as we can remember. It was the home of Elijah Simerly, who served several terms as Sheriff of the county before the war and figured prominently in the bridge burning and the Carter county rebellion. He was also prominent after the war, being connected with the building of a railroad and other business enterprises. Other true and loyal men in this. locality were: L. W. Hampton, Thomas Badgett, Alfred Campbell, Hon. John Hyder, Michael Grindstaff, A. J. Campbell, William Campbell, John Justice, Elkana Hoss, George and David Morton, Moses and Nicholas Johnson, Green Walker, Ambrose McIntosh, Melvin Goodwin, Noten, Zachariah and William Campbell, Oliver Hall, Johnson Hampton, Henry Simerly (moved to the nth District during the war), Joseph and Solomon Turner, Richard Lacy, N. T. Badgett, Ezekiel McIntosh, Fielding McIntosh and David McIntosh, John Simerly, Carter and Z. T. Campbell (the two latter Federal soldiers). These men were all zealous Union men and went through all the dangers, hardships and privations that fell to the lot of loyalists in these counties. They shared their means with liberality with those in need, they risked their lives to protect the helpless and performed the part of brave and loyal men.

The women whose names should be honored for all time, and of whom it may be truthfully said: "There were none more brave, generous and self-sacrificing" were: Mrs. Mary Simerly, Mrs. Sallie Lacy, Mrs. Margaret Hampton, Mrs. Harriet Badgett, Miss Mary Ann Hampton, Mrs. Vina Hyder, Mrs. Nancy James, Mrs. Jane Johnson, Mrs. Martha Walker, Mrs. Mary Johnson, Mrs. Matilda Badgett, Mrs. Sophia Jackson (widow), Mrs. Rachel Justice, Mrs. Adaline Morton, Mrs. Henry Simerly, Mrs. Jane Hall, Mrs. Elizabeth West (widow), and Miss Eliza Badgett, Misses Sarah, Matilda and Mary Campbell, Misses Mary, Martha and Emma Hyder, Miss Harriet Turner, Miss Mary Grindstaff, Mrs. Susana Campbell, Miss Caroline Grindstaff.

ELK MILL, 4TH CIVIL DISTRICT, CARTER COUNTY.

This is the name of a post office on Elk creek in the southeastern part of „Carter county. It is in the vicinity of the Pond Mountain. During the Civil War, as now,. there were fertile farms along the banks of this stream. and in the coves, and the people were reasonably prosperous. As in other sections of the county they were loyal to the Union. Being near the mountain and secluded it was the rendezvous for a large number of refugees during the war. It was the scene of a number of adventures and tragedies.

The following are the names of some of the residents of the vicinity of Elk Mill and near Elk Creek during the time of the war: Richard C. White, Washington White,. George Shuffield, John L. Stout, James Whitehead, Isaac and Amos Green, John Stout, John Kinnick, James Hately, Granville W. Stout, Columbus Wolf, George Blevins, John Cable, William Lewis, Thomas Whitehead and John C. Shuffreld.

The women in this locality whose names we give were called upon to witness some revolting tragedies and to many acts of kindness and pass many sleepless nights and toilsome days feeding the helpless wanderers from home, administering to the sick or wounded, secreting the hunted and burying the dead. Women and aged men performed these offices of humanity with love and tenderness, regardless of the toil and sacrifice it cost them. While we cannot stop to point out each act of humanity or patriotic and Christian duty, each performed her part nobly. They were Elizabeth Cable, Elizabeth Shuffield, Helen Stout, Katie Whitehead, Mary Green, Julia Green, Elizabeth White, Elizabeth Stout, Emma Hately, Mary Kinrick, Sabry White, Eliza Shuffield and others, no doubt, whose .names we have failed to obtain and whom we would be glad to place on record. This section of country was a favorite retreat for men from Carter and Johnson counties and from the nearby States of Virginia and North Carolina. Men escaping from Saulsbury prison and recruiting officers and conscripts hard pressed by soldiers and Indians took shelter in the Pond Mountain and depended on these people for supplies.

BUFFALO AND GAP CREEK, 5TH, 6TH AND 17TH CIVIL DISTRICTS, CARTER COUNTY.

In these three Civil Districts of Carter county are Gap Creek, Buffalo Creek and Powder Branch. During the war the fertile valleys along these creeks were occupied by prosperous and happy people, noted for intelligence and thrift. Though the Union people were largely in the majority there were secessionists, who, during the war, rendered themselves obnoxious to the great majority, while there were others, notably Alfred W. Taylor's family, though heartily in sympathy with the South and three of his sons were officers in the Confederate army, retained the respect and good will of the Union people to a great extent. Col. Robert Love was another secessionist who was highly respected.

When the country became overrun with Confederate soldiers many devices were resorted to to deceive the soldiers and protect Union men. In what was known as the Patton settlement, T. Y. Patton dug a square hole in his yard, covered it with puncheons and made a trapdoor to it. Over this he placed brush or branches of trees. Here he concealed refugees for days at a time without any one suspecting their presence. In the same neighborhood John Miller had a large hollow log a short distance from his house where he concealed and fed refugees. On one occasion Wm. M. Gourley and W. F. M. Hyder, both afterwards officers in the army, were concealed in this log while the snow was on the ground. Miller took them to the log, and in order to obliterate their tracks got a basket of corn and called his hogs, the numerous tracks of the hogs left no trace of the tracks of the men. He fed these men there until the snow melted away.

S. W. Hyder had a mill on Powder Branch and fed hundreds of scouters. He and his wife were kind-hearted liberal people and true to the Union cause. Decker Hyder and John Hyder ("Blood John") and the older sons of the latter, David Hyder among them, were fearless Union people.

Daniel Krouse owned a mill and he and his wife were devoted Union people and liberal in feeding scouters.

George D. and Samuel W. Williams were wealthy Union citizens and contributed largely of their means to the Union cause and were generous in furnishing provisions to the suffering. Nat. T. Williams, known as "Red Nat," was among the leading Union men of the county. He piloted Gen. Burnside and his staff, and explained the location of the country to them when the Federal army made the advance into Upper East Tennessee under that officer in September, 1863. He was in the siege of Knoxville and rendered important and dangerous service in carrying dispatches for Gen. Burnside.

Pleasant M. Williams, of Gap Creek, was a noted Union man. Both he and his son James assisted in burning the bridge at Zollicoffer. Being a bold, outspoken man he soon became an object of hatred to the rebels. No man in the county suffered more for the Union cause than Mr. Williams. He was shot at, imprisoned and mistreated in every way, but no amount of persecution ever induced him to yield for a moment or even conceal his sentiments.

He was put in jail at Elizabethton and also at Greeneville, Tenn., and at Knoxville for a short time. He was then taken to Tuscaloosa, Ala., where he was imprisoned for two months. He was taken from there to Macon, Ga., and from thence to Pensacola, Florida. He was in prison over a year in all. After trying in vain to subdue him by starvation and imprisonment the officer at the prison at last turned him loose saying, "It was cheaper to fight him than to keep him in prison." Mr. Williams was one of those men that never yielded to an enemy. When he reached home he was so emaciated that his hip bones had cut through the skin and was entirely helpless, but he recovered and is still living (1902) at his old home on Gap Creek at the venerable age of 96 years.

The Davenports, at whose house Williams was shot at, were among the most aggressive Union people, Samuel Davenport being one of the bridge burners.

Besides those we have mentioned we recall the names of Dr. J. S. Snodgrass, George (Ed.) Williams, Robert Williams, Alexander Anderson, P. A. J. Crockett, Joseph Hyder, James P. Taylor ("Preacher"), Henry Saylor, John Q. Williams, David C. Moody, Adam Gourley, Alfred Gourley, Alexander Douglass, Adam Loudermilk, Kinchen Range, Jacob M. Range, Thomas P. and Louisa J. Clark, Jesse Humphreys (who had two brave sons in the Federal army), John Humphreys, Sr., (blacksmith), James L. and Martin N. Taylor, Robert Smalling, W. H. H. Davenport, James Smith and wife, Jacob Loudermilk, Allan Lyle, John and Richard Hughes, 0. W. Buck, Francis M. Hyder, James Loudermilk.

Among the loyal women that did their share in cooking and providing for the refugees and scouters were: Mrs. Martha Taylor, Mrs. Bettie and Eliza Range, Mrs. Jane Crockett, Mrs. Eliza Humphreys, Mrs. Bettie Williams, Misses Margaret and Mary E. Taylor, Miss Cleming Taylor, Mrs. Sallie Range, Mrs. Eliza Douglas, Mrs. Elizabeth Edens.

We might mention an incident here that will cast a ray of sunshine among the clouds and show that all feelings of humanity between neighbors of opposite sentiments had not disappeared.

At the time our forces advanced east as far as Carter's Depot and were fighting Gen. William's command (October, 1864,) a number of Union men, among whom were P. A. J. Crockett. Richard Douthat, Thomas C. Johnson, Dr. Snodgrass, D. C. Moody, Henry Saylor and others went up on Bogard's Knob, a high eminence near Carter's Depot, to witness the engagement.

Gen. Williams observing them sent a squad of soldiers and had them arrested as Union spies. When he fell back to Zollicoffer he took the prisoners with him. An order was made out to send them to Richmond to work on the fortifications. Major George D. Taylor, who was well known to all these men, was at that time on Gen. Williams' staff. He told Gen. Williams while these men were all Union men, they were all good men and were not spies, and requested the General to release them, which he did.

We would say in this connection that Major Geo. D. Taylor, and his brothers, William C., Col. Nat. M., and Captain H. H. Taylor, and Col. Robert C. Love, all of this neighborhood, often used their influence with the Confederate authorities in behalf of Union men who were in trouble, and who were their friends and neighbors before the War. These men were always held in high esteem by all classes.

TURKEYTOWN.

This part of Carter county now in the 8th and 13th Civil Districts, extends from a point on the Watauga river, two miles east of Elizabethton, to Watauga, formerly Carter's Depot, on the Southern Railroad. It is bounded on the west by the beautiful and historic Watauga river. There has never been a town or village within its boundary except Watauga, built up largely since the war.

The name Turkeytown was applied to a large area extending along the Watauga river on the south side and along the Holston Mountain (part of the way) on the north side for a distance of eight or ten miles east and west, or rather, in an irregular direction with the course of the river. Ever since we can remember it has been divided into two precincts known as Upper and Lower Turkeytown. The Southern railroad (East Tennessee and Virginia) over which nearly all the soldiers from the South passed during the war, going into Virginia, passes through Lower Turkeytown. This entire section of country was comparatively thickly settled during the war, and the people were very prosperous, much of their lands lying along the river and the remainder being, to a great extent, productive upland. In Lower Turkeytown the people suffered greatly from both armies advancing and retreating alternately along the railroad. Like the entire length of what is now the Southern Railroad, almost every foot of it through East Tennessee was fought over time and again from the beginning to the close of the Civil War, and we regret to say, that the people who had been so loyal and true to the Government were often as badly mistreated and robbed by the Northern troops as by the Southern. Many brave deeds were performed, both by the men and women of this locality, much suffering was endured and many hardships undergone. Nearly all were loyal to the Union. The incident we have related of Mrs. Christina Scott saving a neighbor boy from arrest and very probable death occurred in Lower Turkeytown, and many others of a similar nature took place. The people, as in other parts of the county, gave freely of what they had to refugees from Johnson county and North Carolina passing through on their way to Kentucky. All we have said of the loyalty and heroism, the kindness and liberality to scouters and refugees and escaping prisoners, may be said with equal truth of the people of the entire Turkeytown country. While we will place on record the names of many of them who were true and loyal and brave we wish to mention the name of one now dead, who, though his sympathies were with the Southern cause and he had sons in the Southern army it has been repeatedly told to us that he often gave of his means to Union men who were suffering and never attempted to point out his nerghbors to have them arrested by Southern soldiers as did some others who lived near him. The man to whom we refer is the late Isaac L. Brown. Another Southern sympathizer who retained the good will of the Union people was W. C. Emmert, of Turkeytown.

Among the prominent Union men in Turkeytown durrng the war were the following: S. A. Cunningham, Harrison Hendrix and S. H. Hendrix, who are mentioned in connection with the bridge burning; A. M. Brown, who was postmaster and railroad, or station agent, at Carter's Depot; Andrew Taylor, who is mentioned in the Chapter of Tragedies; John Murray, James Bishop, Berry Daniels, Samuel Shell, Nathan Demsey, Levi, Henry and Abner Slagle, Zack Foust, Ed. M. Crow, Samuel McCorkle, Pleasant Gibson, Jordan Croy, Landon Taylor, Webb Taylor (a youth), Jeremiah M. Emmert, M. Y. Morton, George Mottern, John and William Lacy, William P. Lacy, Rev. James R. Scott, William and Henry Poland. Samuel Bishop, Henry Morrell, J. A. Barnes, Rev. Radford Ellis and wife, and his sons, Arnold, Solomon and Haynes Ellis, Alfred Shell, Philip Davis, John Smith (who was killed), Edward Glover, Henry Stout, Andrew Reynolds, Anderson Crumley and Turner Chambers.

S. A. Cunningham, Harrison Hendrix and Andrew Taylor were the leading men in the plot to burn the bridge across the river at Watauga (Carter's Depot), and cut the telegraph wires the night that the bridge was burned at Zollicoffer. The burning the bridge was abandoned on account of the strong guard (McClellan's company) being stationed there. The telegraph wires were cut, however, Cunningham, himself, climbing one of the poles, the bark, which had not been removed, slipped and Cunningham was precipitated to the ground, receiving painful injuries. The other men named were no less active in performing any and every duty assigned them to advance the cause of the Union.

Among the older men then living in Turkeytown, all of whom have passed away, were: Peter Slagle, George Persinger, Solomon and Abram Hart, William Bishop, Jonathan Range, Henry Mottern, Bayless and Reuben Miller, Henry Little.

Among the loyal women of that locality, than whom there were none nobler, truer or braver, among all the noble women of Carter county, were: Mrs. Alice Cunningham, Mrs. Christina Scott, Mrs. Stephen Houston (who had three sons in the Federal army), Mrs. Mary Thompson ( widow ), Mrs. Catherine Slagle (wife of Henry Slagle who died in prison), Mrs. Massy Slagle, Mrs. Annie Range, Mrs. Sarah Foust, Mrs. Rebecca Crow, Mrs. Susan Vest (widow), Mrs. Lucinda McCorkle, Mrs. Elizabeth Miller, Mrs. Rachel Miller, Hrs. Henry Little, Mrs. Mary Campbell, Mrs. Solomon Hart, Mrs. Abram Hart, Mrs. J. A. Barnes, Mrs. John Murray, Mrs. Matilda Williams (had two sons die in Richmond prison), Mrs. Andrew Taylor (whose husband was shot and two sons imprisoned for their loyalty), Mrs. Axie Davis, Mrs. Marinda Glover, Mrs. Elizabeth Stout, Mrs. Mary Chambers.

THE NECK AND HORSESHOE.

These are names long ago applied to a section of Carter county lying in the 18th Civil District and extending from near Elizabethton in a southeasterly direction along the south side of the Lynn Mountain to the Watauga river at Siam, and thence up the river past the great bend in the Watauga known as the "Horseshoe." A portion of this country, especially along the river is exceedingly fertile, and in the time of the war contained quite a large population, a large portion of which was loyal to the Federal Government. The sufferings, hardships, arrests, imprisonments; the feeding of conscripts and refugees, tragedies and all the direful consequences of civil war, which we have so often tried to describe were visited upon these people in a large measure, and they met the danger and toil with the same heroism that characterized the Union people elsewhere through the two counties. Many suffered death, others imprisonment, some are sleeping in National cemeteries, some in distant States, and nearly all have passed to the "great beyond."

The following are the names of the men and women living in this locality then as far as we can obtain them: Caleb Cox and wife, Isaac and Elizabeth Lewis, David and Celia Hess, Henry Pierce and wife, Joseph P. and Rebecca Vanhuss, Joel N. and Sarah Nave, Thomas C. and Elva Crow, Joseph and Tempe Pharr, Jones Allan and wife, John, Elbridge, Robert and Jacob Treadway (brave men), Jackson Allan and wife, Presley Carden and wife (who had sons killed on both sides, one volunteered in the Confederate army and two were conscripted, one was killed at Lick Creek fighting for the Union), John L. Bowers and wife, John Heaton, Elijah D. Harden (bachelor), Rev. Valentine Bowers, had two sons, Reese and Benjamin, killed near Fish Spring, Tenn., and two others, William C. and Joseph P., who were loyal men. James L. Lewis, now of Watauga Point, was a boy then and lived with his father, Isaac Lewis. We are indebted to him for many of the above names.

LIMESTONE COVE.

This section, lying in the southwest part of Carter county during the Civil War, is now a part of Unicoi county, Tenn. No part of the county was more loyal and no other people suffered more, or were truer to their principles than the people who then resided in the Limestone Cove.

We have not been able to visit this section of the country, and can recall now but few of the names of these brave and loyal people.

There were Dr. David Bell and his brother James, Robert and William Morrison, Thomas Wright, Ezekiel Burchfield, William Woodby, William McKinney, Thos. Green, and the O'Briens, the Moseleys, the Bakers, the Mclnturfs, these and many others, with their brave wives and daughters encountered the perils and hardships that their loyalty to the Union brought upon them, with the same undaunted courage that characterized the loyalists of these counties everywhere.

STONY CREEK, THE 9TH,10TH AND 12TH CIVIL DISTRICTS OF CARTER COUNTY.

What is known as Stony. Creek in Carter county, Tennessee, extends from the county line on top of the Cross Mountain on the east to a point on the Watauga river two miles east of Elizabethton, a distance of about sixteen .miles northeast and southwest, and is bounded on the south by the Iron Mountain and on the north by the Holston Mountain. It is rather a rough, hilly country, but has some fertile coves and valleys, fine timber and rich minerals.

The people depended largely on what was called the "iron-works" to afford them employment in digging, hauling and washing ore, chopping wood, burning it into charcoal and hauling it to the forges and furnaces, and other labor connected with the production of iron in its various forms. When the war came they were almost unanimous in their adherence to the Union. As far as we are able to learn there were but four secession families in this entire extent of territory. As in other sections of the county they resisted to the utmost the encroachments of the Southern soldiery and refused to fight under or for a strange flag, but paid dearly for their loyalty to the old flag.

We can recount but few of the scenes through which they passed, but these will show the temper of these people, and give an idea of what they all endured.

We will give first the names of some of the men and women who inhabited that region in time of the Civil war—true heroes and heroines they were, as will be seen: Stephen and Lavicy Lewis, Samuel and Ellen Anderson, William and Urie Blevins, Campbell and Matilda Buckles, Samuel and Rachel Forbush, William Creed and wife, Alfred and Louisa Peters, John and Mary Harden, David and Jane Taylor, Allen and Rebecca Roberts, G. W. and Jane Rasor, Vaught Rasor (bachelor), David and Rachel Elliott, John Grindstaff and wife, Robert White, Frank and Julia White, Benjamin Cole and wife. Parett and Joanna Markland, Isaac Garland, Columbus Blevins, David Garland, John Richardson and wife, Jacob and Lovina Vandeventer (Vandeventer deceived the rebel authorities and acted as Sheriff, but all the time was known to be loyal by the Union people and befriended them), Harmon and Mary Crumley, James and Mary L. Cass, John K. and Lucretia Ensor, Jonathan Lipps and Nancy (the former lived to be over 100 years old), William Nave, Lewis D. and Lorena Lewis, William and Nancy Peters (Blue Springs), Aquilla and Katie Moore, David and Elizabeth Kitzmiller, William Ferguson and wife, Nicholas and Catherine Miller, Nancy McCloud (widow; had five sons in Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry), William 0. and Barbara Frasier (four sons in Federal army), Margaret Taylor, Peter B. and Susan Elliott, Andrew J. Boyd and wife, and William 0. Frasier, Jr., and his wife, Margaret Frasier. Even after this long list we have doubtless omitted many names of the loyal and brave people who lived on Stony Creek during the Civil War.

RECRUITING IN THE ENEMY'S LINES.

We will relate some narrow  escapes of one or two Federal recruiting officers, illustrating the danger they were constantly in, and yet there were hundreds of men who. did not hesitate to engage in it and, in fact, volunteered to do this service.

Lieut. A. D. Frasier was first sent out to recruit enough men to complete his company, but proved so successful in recruiting men and eluding the enemy that he was kept in that service until nearly the close of the war and was highly commended by his superior officers.

On his first trip, in October, 1863, he had recruited only two men, James Nave and Michael Roberts. The nights being cool they lodged in a barn. One of the men, Nave, was discovered by a company of rebel soldiers under a Captain Boren, who was hunting conscripts and arresting Union men. Nave betrayed Frasier and Roberts and told the officer that Frasier was a Federal recruiting officer in full uniform and armed with two navy pistols. The officer surrounded the barn and demanded the surrender of the two men. Roberts climbed down and gave himself up and was struck over the head with a gun by one of the soldiers and badly hurt. Frasier determined to sell his life as dearly as possible, believing he would be shot anyway. Captain Boren finally set fire to the barn and Frasier seeing no chance of escape hid his pistols, coat and recruiting papers in the hay, thinking they would be burned and destroy the evidence against him, and came down and surrendered. He talked and acted independently and was treated very nicely by a Lieutenant of the company. Roberts was tied but Frasier was only guarded, while Nave was taken into the confidence of the enemy for betraying Frasier.

The rebels put out the fire and found Lieut. Frasier's uniform and pistols but did not find his recruiting papers. They found his pistols cocked and asked him what that meant. He told them it meant if they had attacked him instead of firing the barn he intended to kill as many of them as he could. Some of the soldiers cocked their guns to shoot him, but the Lieutenant interfered. They took what money he had and such of his clothes as they wanted. That morning the company went to the home of Reuben Brooks, a prominent rebel citizen, for breakfast. They had captured another Union man, Frank White, and tied him and Roberts together. The same day this company shot a Union man named Dillon Blevins and left him for dead, but he recovered and joined the Federal army and died in the service. Leaving Brooks' the company started down Stony Creek., hunting conscripts and bushwhackers. They went to the home of Christian Crow, the only secession family in the neighborhood except the Brooks family. They had a dance there and Lieut. Frasier being a violinist furnished the music but was closely guarded all the time. That evening Lieut. Isaac L. Nave, of the Confederate army, whose home was down on the Watauga river, and whom we have had occasion to mention, came there. Frasier, who had worked for Nave in his forge and had known him from his boyhood thought he would find in him an influential friend who would save him from imprisonment, if not death. He asked to have an interview with Nave, which was permitted, and told him the trouble he was in and implored his assistance on the grounds that their families had always been warm friends and had supported him for office; but Nave told him he could do nothing for him, that "he had joined the wrong cause," and turned coldly away.

On the following day Capt. Boren again started out search of victims having in charge the prisoners we have named, Leiut. Frasier, Roberts and White, the two latter tied together with ropes and guarded by one cavalryman while Frasier was guarded by a single soldier and both men on foot. The larger part of the company were some distance in advance of the prisoners. Passing White's home he asked permission to stop and get a change of clothing. When the guard started on with White two Union girls, Misses Lucinda and Dulcina Bartee, who happened there at the time, and also Mrs. Julia White started along the road with the prisoners and guard. They had not gone far when James White, Frank's brother, who had been following along in the bushes out of sight of the guard, rushed out into the road and knocked the guard off his horse with a rock, and Mrs. White, who had prepared for the emergency by concealing a butcher knife in her clothing, cut the rope that bound the two prisoners together and the prisoners and women fled to the Iron Mountain. But for this brave deed of the two girls and Julia White, his wife, Frank White would have been shot, as he was charged with being a "bushwhacker." Having heard of his arrest this plan for his release was adopted and bravely carried out.

The soldier received a bad scalp wound, and that, with his fall from his horse dazed him, but he recovered in a short time sufficiently to fire off his gun and pistols to alarm the soldiers in advance. Some of them returned and all were greatly excited and it was reported they had been fired on by the bushwhackers. Capt. Boren ordered White's home, with its contents, burned to the ground.

In the meantime Lieut. Frasier and his guard being some distance in the rear (the guard wearing Frasier's fine coat, lieutenant's straps and all). The soldier stepped over a small stream of water that crossed the road and Frasier, remarking that he wanted a drink got down on his knee and placing his right hand on a good-sized stone, pretended to drink and as he raised up with the stone in his hand he threw it at the guard, placing him hors de combat, and taking advantage of the situation, fled, but the guard recovered in time to send a bullet through his clothing.

LIEUT. H. H. HOUSLEY was another recruiting officer who did good service and ran many narrow risks. At one time while he and several others were hidden, the rebel soldiers came on to the two Bartee girls we have mentioned taking some baskets of provisions to Lieut. Housley and some men he had with him. They tried to make them tell where the men were but the brave girls refused to do so. Housley and his men heard them firing on some Union men nearby and vacated their camp. They lost their breakfast but saved themselves. Michael Roberts, who had made his escape a few days before, was with Housley at that time, also Landon Blevins and others.

Besides the many other brave deeds done by the loyal women of Stony Creek, they were heroines in the one thing of fighting "the wolf from the door" and supporting their helpless children and those enfeebled by age in the absence of their fathers and husbands. They returned to the primitive methods and made clothing from the raw material—cotton, flax and wool—they felled trees in the forests; they raised and garnered the grain and stored it in the barns; they carded and spun and wove; they made and mended shoes, killed hogs and beeves, repaired their homes and barns, and besides the "women's work that is never done," they did the work of men "that lasts from sun to sun."

1ST CIVIL DISTRICT OF JOHNSON COUNTY, TENN.

This District lies in the extreme northeastern point in Tennessee, where the State line joins that of Virginia and North Carolina at the foot of the White Top Mountain.

It was the abode of many true and loyal men and women who suffered for their devotion to the Union, but who did not quail before the storm of persecution that broke over their heads, but stood firmly upon the deck while the ship of state was being tossed to and fro by the turbulent waves of Civil War as they ebbed and flowed for four long, dreary years. The following are some of their names: Major John Ward, who was an officer in the Mexican War, and his wife, Dalila; Peter D. and Sophia Wills, Russell B. and Elizabeth Wills, Adam and Amanda Wills, James H. and Eliza Wills, Robert W. and Susan Keys, David L. and Jane Keys, James J. and Susan J. Robinson, Elias and Lavenia Worley, John B. and Abigail McQueen, Joseph and Sarah Sutherland, Joseph A. and Sarah Sutherland, Abner and Lincinda Eggers, Joseph A. and Orpha Grace, John and Margaret Grace, R. W. and Elizabeth Hawkins, Wm. and Mary Gentry, Andrew and Margaret E. Gentry, Richard U. and Sarah Gentry, Thomas and Frances Gentry, John J. and Dada Gentry, William and Mary Cornut, Caleb Wills, David and Nancy Gilliland, John H. and Susan Micheals, Vincent and Delia Morefield, David and Mary Bridges, James and Polly Bridges, Ezekial and Ellen Dixon, Landon H. and Emaline Hawkins, Alfred and Jane Hawkins, Richard and Mary Hawkins, Joseph and Millie Gilbert, George H. and Mariah L. Robinson, S. E. P. and Mary McQueen.

These people were loyal and true, and many of them sent sons into the Federal army. They demonstrated their loyalty by aiding conscripts and refugees and by feeding and caring for escaped prisoners.

Captain Slimp tells the following story in regard to Russell B. Wills of this District:

"I have seen proper to mention the name of Russell B. Wills in my list of worthies who was an unswerving Union man. He had a little sack of gold, consisting of about four hundred dollars. Johnson county was infested with a gang of deserters from the Confederate army. Robbery being a favorite occupation of the gang they roamed about over the county for plunder, especially money. They had an eager inclination for gold and silver. Mr. Wills saw them coming to his house in a gallop and had no time to hide his gold, but picked up a bucket and stepped to the well, knowing they would be in his pocket, he dropped his sack of gold in the well and in a few moments they searched his pockets and found no gold. In their disappointment the gang hurried away before Mr. Wills could tell them his gold was in the bottom of his well."

2D CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District embraces what was the town of Taylorsville, during the Civil War, and is now Mountain City, Tennessee. It was a most beautiful and delightful village, nestled in the hills and inhabited by an intelligent, brave and loyal people. Many of them were well educated, and some of them were slave owners, by far the greater part of them were loyal to the Union. There were few towns, according to the number of its inhabitants that could boast of more intelligent, enterprising men than Taylorsville.

When the war came they bravely asserted their rights and maintained them as long as it was possible to do so, and when free speech was no longer permitted they sought shelter in the mountains and later in the Federal army and fought their way back to their homes.

R. R. Butler and A. D. Smith, both of whom became Lieut.-Colonels in the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, were residents of Taylorsville, Major James W. M. Grayson; of that place, was among the first to take a large company of men from Johnson county into the Federal army. Among the officers of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry besides those named who resided at Taylorsville or in that vicinity were: Major Joseph H. Wagner, Major R. H. M. Donnelly, Captain Richard H. Luttrell, Captain Jacob H. Norris, Captain S. C. Northington, Captain A. T. Donnelly, Captain T. J. Barry, and Lieutenants H. C. Northington, C. M. Arnold, and Charles Lefler.

Taylorsville, and its vicinity, was the scene of many incidents and tragedies. We have had occasion to mention the vindictive spirit shown towards the Union people by the disloyal element of that county after the country was occupied by rebel soldiers, and especially those who belonged to and operated with the "home-guard." We have been creditably informed that all who entertained what was termed the "Southern sentiment" were not of this class. We have already had occasion to mention the saving of the life of a Union man by the intervention of a rebel lady, Mrs. Shoun. There are doubtless many other instances where neighbors on opposite sides interposed in each others behalf, and such acts form a silver lining to the dark clouds of civil war, and we are always glad to make record of them.

Besides the vindictive spirit which was aroused in Johnson county between its own citizens, that county seems to• have been cursed by the presence of robbers and marauders from other places who took refuge there and made the war an excuse for pillage and plunder.

Following are the names of some of the loyal men and women who were residents of Taylorsville, Tenn., during the Civil War, and who witnessed and took part in the almost indescribable scenes of chaos and anarchy that ruled that period: Mathias M. and Mary Wagner, David H. and Rachel Wagner, Nathaniel T. and Amanda Wagner. Andrew W. and Susan Wagner, Andrew C. and Hilia Wagner, William K. and Alice Donnelly, Richard A. and. Matilda Donnelly, Richard H. and Eliza Donnelly, Dr. Robert L. Donnelly, Dr. James D. and Frances Donnelly. Harrison C. and Margaret Donnelly, Oliver C. and Eliza Butler, Archibald and Louisa Bradfute, Thomas and Lucy Barry, Nicholas S. and Susan Cress, Samuel and'

Sarah Cress, John M. and Lavina Cress, William L. and Clara Cress, Samuel D. and Eliza Cress, and James A. Cress; William and Nancy Shupe, John and Elizabeth Shupe, John H. and Fanny Shupe, Reuben and Kezzie Fritts, Abram and Aura Grigston, Joel and Sarah Brookshur, David and Elizabeth Turner, William E. and Orpha Johnson, Thomas and Mary Johnson, Hyder M. and Sarah Mitchell, Giles and Valeria Gregory, Thomas S. and Margaret Smythe, William T. and Margaret Shupe, Franklin M. and Sarah Chappel, Mrs. Mary Smith, Harvey L. and Martha Johnson, Isaac and Atlantic Rambo, George W. and Polly Turner, David and Jane Phillips, R. E. and Rachel Berry, Jas. W. and Nancy Turner.

We introduce here a flag incident kindly furnished us by Lieut. H. C. Northington, now of Denver, Colorado. It shows the spirit of loyalty that pervaded the minds of the people. No greater insult could be offered them than to wave a Southern flag in their sight. Nor was their loyalty of a brief or spasmodic character; the same men who captured this rebel flag proved their loyalty afterwards on the battle-fields. The others, whose names we have mentioned, were equally loyal to the Union, and all of them, both men and women, suffered every indignity imaginable at the hands of the Johnson county "home guards," an organization, which if it has not been greatly maligned, guarded few homes, but with ruthless hands invaded a large majority of the homes of that county to terrify and oppress their inmates, and burned many of them over their heads because of their loyalty to the Union.

Some of the Union men were hunted down and imprisoned, some dying in prison and buried in unknown graves, while in some instances their wives were driven insane by the terrible ordeals through which they passed. The midnight vigils of the faithful, loving wife, the fond mother and the loving sister, watching and waiting for father, husband or brother, whom they knew might never return, the dread and anxiety was worse if possible than death itself, yet there are few; if any, of the women whose names we have given who were not called upon to go through wrth the sad experience. Yet as a rule these brave women bore up nobly under the great mental and physical strain, and did cheerfully all that it was possible for them to do, feeding the hungry, administering to the sick and helpless, watching, almost with sleepless eyes, for the approach of the enemy, and warning the hunted refugees when danger approached. In moments of surprise and sudden danger it is said that women retain their wits and are more resourceful in finding ways of escape or devising means of frustrating the plans of the enemy than men are ender like circumstances. Their ingenuity in this respect was often put to severe tests during the Civil War when the life of a husband, brother or friend was at stake: and many a life has been saved through their instrumentality.

CAPTURE OF CONFEDERATE FLAG.

"The next day after Virginia seceded from the Union, or rather passed the ordinance of secession, the first Confederate flag appeared in Taylorsville, Tenn., now Mountain City, under the following circumstances. The United States mail coach from Abington, Va., arrived in Mountain City every afternoon at five o'clock and departed next morning at eight o'clock for North Carolina. On this occasion there were two men, besides the stage driver, going over the line with some extra led horses. One of these men had a Confederate flag about 18x36 inches, carrying it in his hands, waving it over the heads of all whom he happened to meet, halloing for the Southern Confederacy and insulting Union men by flaunting it in their faces. After going to their hotel, or place of stopping, a committee of Union men called on the men and advised them not to carry the flag through the streets, that Tennessee had not seceded from the Union and the Union people of the town were opposed to the Southern Confederacy, and the flag.

This seemed to insult them and they began to abuse Union men and said that they would carry the flag the next morning through the streets, and that if the Union people "didn't like it they could lump it," and that they would kill the first man that attempted to take it down.

That night a few of the Union men got together and agreed to take the flag from them if they attempted to parade the streets with it the next morning. We knew that they would stop at the post office for the mail, so we agreed to meet there and capture it. But when the time came the more conservative heads said that we had better drop the matter and let them go as it would cause us trouble and perhaps some of us our lives. In the meantime three of our party had made all arrangements to take the flag, and we proceeded to do it in the following manner: A double-barreled shot-gun was placed on the inside and behind the post office door. When the men came up with the flag, waving it and halloing, there were present, S. E. Northington, J. H. Wagner and H. C. Northington. All were well-armed and ready for business. S. E. Northington was to demand the surrender of the flag, and upon their refusal to do so, H. C. Northington was to hand him the double-barreled shot-gun and he would shoot it off the head of the man who carried it. The flag was sewed to the man's hat. When S. E. Northington demanded the flag the man who had it was on horseback. He commenced to swear, saying, "We dare you to touch it." Just then H. C. Northington handed S. E. Northington the double-barreled shot-gun, whereupon the latter said, "Take that flag down or I will shoot it down," and without hesitation he shot the flag in ribbons, keeping the man and the flag covered with the gun until he took off his hat and pulled out the flag from the hat and handed it to S. E. Northington, then hurriedly galloped away with his companions.

"The participants in this affair were afterwards officers in the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry."

H. C. NORTHINGTON,
249 S. 13th Street, Denver, Colo.

3D CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District lies east of Shoun's Cross Roads and was but sparsely settled during the Civil War, but we are told that its inhabitants were among the bravest and truest loyal people in that loyal county, and that they suffered much hardships and privations and encountered many dangers and contended nobly for what they conceived to be right. They were imbued with the same spirit of loyalty to the Union and love and veneration for the old flag that had been handed down from father to sons since the days of King's Mountain.

We place on record here such of their names as we have been able to obtain. Most of these men had sons in the Federal army, or were in the service themselves: James Powell, David Farmer, Zebulon Payne, Andrew Potter, Sr., Andrew Potter, Jr., Richmond Roberts, Timothy Roark.

4TH CIVIL DISTRICT OF JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District was among the most prosperous in the county, and its inhabitants were, as a rule, intelligent and progressive people, most of them being substantial farmers. There lived in that locality in the time of the Civil War: Major David Slimp and his wife, Evaline; Colonel Daniel Slimp and wife, Susan; Martin and Sarah Slimp, Jordan and Minty Jones, John S. and Rebecca Vaught, John H. Vaught and wife, John S. and Nancy Vaught, Alfred and Martha Widby, Daniel Ward, John W. Lunceford, John Bailey, Nathaniel and Nancy Lester,. Peter and Malissa Snyder, William and 'Vary Arnold. John B. and Rachel Vaught, Daniel and Mary Snyder, John Hawkins, Jr., and Nancy, Jacob and Sarah Wagner, Jacob and Ann Wagner, Joseph J. and Mary Wagner, Daniel and Mary Snyder, John and Mary Arney, Larkin and Malinda Dunn, John and Catherine Slimp, Rolin and Anna Jenkins, Thomas and Dalila Ward, John and Nancy Ward, Eli and Nancy Davis, Rev. W. B. Gambill and wife, Elizabeth, Godfrey D. and Mary Stout, Rev. John W. and Mary Mink, William G. and Rebecca Nave, David V. and Ann Stout, Robert P. and Eliza Moore, Millard and Martha Lester, Hamilton B. and Martha Ward, Meridith B. and Rebecca Dunn, John Hawkins, Nathan Stout, N. T. Wagner, John B. Vaught, Larkin Dunn, Peter Rasor, Nicholas and Catherine Stout, Morefield and Rebecca Lester, Jackson and Edith Proffit, Richard and Rebecca Lester.

Two of these men, John Hawkins and John H. Vaught, were martyrs to the Union cause; others, men and women, suffered from dangers, privations and persecutions, and all saw and felt the blight of "war's unhallowed footsteps" about their homes. Some of them had sons in the Federal army.

5TH CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District was in the western part of the county, and lies along the Watauga river. During the Civil War it was a well-to-do farming neighborhood, but since the war, in addition to this it embraces the very pretty and thriving little town of Butler, named in honor of the late Hon. R. R. Butler.

This little town boasts of the Holly Springs College, a prosperous school founded a number of years ago by Prof. James H. Smith and still (1902) presided over by that well-known and popular educator.

During the war their ruling passion was loyalty to the Union, and from that idea no amount of persecution could induce them to swerve for a single moment. Flattery and appeals to prejudice, threats of death and imprisonment were alike unavailing in changing the steadfast loyalty of these people: Joshua and Nancy Perkins, Ezekiel Smith Sr., and Nancy Smith, Joseph and Nancy Wagner, James D. and Lucinda Rainbolt, Andrew and Elizabeth Wilson, Andrew J. and Julia Ann Wilson, Elisha and Elizabeth Rainbolt, Nicholas G. and Martha Grindstaff, Isaac and Mary Grindstaff, Jacob F. and Christina Grindstaff, David R. and Salina Stout, Isaac and Atlantic Rambo, John and Mary Slimp, Calvin F. and Catherine Slimp, Thos. J. and Susan Stout, David and Martha Shull, George P. and Nancy Stout, Burton and Mary Greenwell, Andrew T. and Susan Smith, William L. and Louisa Smith, Mathias and Sarah Wagner, Joseph and Louisa Wagner, Andrew B. and Martha Slimp, Andrew Cable, Isham McCloud.

Calvin F. Slimp was a young married man who died in the latter part of 1861, but just previous to his death he attended a Union meeting at Taylorsville, some 18 miles distant from his home. He went on foot and carried a large National flag mounted on a heavy pole, and after attending the meeting returned to his home with the flag, having walked a distance of 36 miles. This patriotic act showing his loyalty and love of country was among the last deeds of his life. No other section, even of "loyal Johnson county" exceeded this district in the loyalty and patriotism of its citizens, and scarcely any other suffered more for its devotion to the flag.

Without making "invidious comparisons" it may be said that no other people faced the storm and "bore the brunt of battle" with greater courage or more unyielding obstinacy than were displayed by the people in these localities. The men did their full share in resisting "the strange flag and the strange doctrine" till resistance became vain. and then they "hied themselves away" in the wake of Dan. Ellis across mountains and ravines, across rivers and streams to where the old flag greeted their delighted senses. Many never returned but they did what has been done since the ages began—paid the price of liberty for others. The brave women whose names we have mentioned also "bore the burden and heat of the day." with a fortitude never surpassed and equalled only by their "sisters in sorrow" throughout the domain of which we are writing.

MRS. NAOMI SLIMP.

In the fall of 1864 Captain Slimp got a leave of absence to visit his family in Johnson county. While there, concealing himself as much as possible, a young man by the name of Wagner, a neighbor, having imbibed disloyal sentiments, undertook to practice a deception upon the Captain by stealing up on him a short distance from his house. To carry out his nefarious purposes, Wagner manifested unusual friendship, so much that it excited the Captain's suspicion that he meant mischief. He had on a large homespun overcoat, the deep pockets swinging heavy, which still increased the Captain's suspicion that he was armed with a concealed weapon. At this critical juncture Wagner could not conceal his agitation. In the meantime Slimp picked up his ax, which was convenient, stepped close to his antagonist, who assured Slimp he was his friend and wanted protection. Withdrawing his hands from his big pockets and proposed a mutual contract which was accepted. Each one was to give notice to the other if danger should arise. But this mutual contract was soon violated. When night came the Captain's home was surrounded with furious yells by a gang of Confederate outlaws. The clatter of horses over a rocky road gave the alarm and he escaped unhurt. But his wife, Mrs. Naomi Slimp had to atone for the disappointment. They were sure they had their intended victim in their clutches. The traitor, Wagner, and the gang wanted the honor of capturing a Federal officer. A close search was made in and all about the house, but their intended victim could not be found. Positive demand was made on Mrs. Slimp and children to tell where their victim could be found. This being impossible they made dangerous threats, and flew into a rage over their disappointment. They kicked her, knocked her down with a heavy stick, inflicting a severe wound on the head, and as they supposed left her dead on the floor. Her wound bled profusely. When she went down into her grave the scar went with her.

6TH CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District lies partly on Little Doe river and embraces a portion of the great ore and mineral region of Johnson county. Forges were operated there during the war and many conscripts detailed to work in them.

Col. Sam. Howard was one of the leading spirits among the loyalists of this District, but there were many others, some of whom we will name: Godfrey and Elizabeth Stout, Abram and Catherine Murphy, Daniel and Polly Clark, A. S. and Rebecca McQueen, Major David D. and Anne Stout, Samuel and Kinsey Howard, David and Catherine Robinson, Nicholas G. and Mary Robinson, John and Lydia Proffit, George W. and Violet Kite, William A. and Elizabeth Morely, John H. and Elizabeth Stalcup, Henderson and Rachel Lloyd, Dr. David and Sarah Smithpeters, James M. and Lucinda Smith, Rev. James B. and Elizabeth Stone, Meridith D. and Hannah Arnold, William B. and Nancy Stout, Godfrey D. and Mary Heaton, Rev. Abraham Murphy, and Catherine Murphy, Hon. Hawkins P. Murphy, Rev. David Clark, Daniel and Mary Clark, James and Ellen Gilliland, Hamilton H. Gilliland, Joseph and Catherine Robinson, John and Matilda Rainbolt, John and Elizabeth Campbell, Lawson W. and Elizabeth Robinson, James G. and Susan Howard, Dr. Joseph H. and Lettie Robinson, Thomas and Sarah Laviney, John W. Heaton.

Of these men Dr. David Smithpeters was a member of the Greeneville Union Convention that denounced the secession movement in such unequivocal language. James Gilliland was murdered at his home. G. W. Kite was a veteran of the Mexican War and though too far advanced in years to join the army was true to the Union cause.

We give here an incident showing how William G. Howard managed to escape death at the hands of a company of heartless murderers who had just slain his brother, David Howard. Captain Slimp tells the story:

"William G. Howard was present when the rebel soldiers came and he and his brother ran in different directions. William succeeded in getting to the creek and immediately sunk his body to the bottom, barely leaving his mouth and nose out of the water for breathing purposes. His pursuers made vigorous efforts to find him, searching in every direction, but he stuck close to the bottom of the creek, occasionally giving his respiratory organs a chance to take in a supply of fresh air. The posse of rebels finally gave up the search and retired. This stratagem completely foiled them and defeated them in the bloody purpose of taking his life as they did that of his less fortunate brother who fell into their hands. Mr. Howard in relating the incident said he remained submerged in the cold water for over an hour, it being a cold frosty morning, but that the occasion was such that he scarcely felt the icy water, and did not suffer in the least from cold. He pointed out the place of his amphibious retreat and dwelt with much seeming pleasure upon the circumstances of his peculiar escape from sure and speedy death."

Another trying incident, but which terminated fortunately, was the experience of Godfrey Stout, a staunch Union man who was captured and taken up on Doe near the home of a Mr. Shoun, who was a rebel citizen.

The rebels decided to kill him and made him stand up against a tree to be shot. Mrs. Katie Shoun, a rebel lady, and friend of Mr. Stout, observing what was about to take place, ran out and interceded for his life, and was successful in saving it.

Many incidents of like character, and some far worse, befell the men of this locality. The young men mostly joined the Federal army, while many who had families remained with them as long as possible, sometimes working in the forges, at other times scouting in the mountains, only stealing into their homes occasionally to get something to eat or a change of raiment. The houses were closely watched and often when approaching or leaving their homes they would be halted by rebel soldiers, at other times they would be fired on without warning.

7TH CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District, as will be seen, was the home of the Shouns and the Stouts than whom there were no more loyal patriotic or hospitable people anywhere.

But the Shouns and the Stouts were not alone among the people of the good old "Seventh District" in their loyalty, patriotism and hospitality. The other names we mention were of the same "web and woof," the same unflinching devotion and unfaltering love for flag and country; and they reached out the same benevolent hand to the hungry and helpless in the dark days of Civil War. These were: Joseph and Polly Shoun, Andrew and Elizabeth Shoun, G. H. and Dosia Shoun, Joseph N. and Sarah Shoun, William H. and Eliza Shoun, Caleb A. and Rachel Shoun, S. E. and Mary Shoun, Peter P. and Lucassa Shoun, Charles and Abigail Berry, David L. and Sarah Berry, Joel R. and Elizabeth Berry, Parkey and Barbara Stout, Alfred and Susan Stout, Samuel and Sallie Stout, John, Sr., and Sarah Stout, David M. and Sallie Stout, George and Eliza Stout, Abram and Cynthia Lowe, Geo. J. and Rebecca Walker, John and Sydney Speer, Dr. John M. and Lucinda Roberts, William K. and Catherine Goodwin, Robert P. and Mary Walsh, Myer and Polly Smith, George W. and Hannah Morely, Jacob and Rena Roberts, John and Mary Crosswhite, Alfred C. and Amanda Crosswhite, Joseph and Katie Robinson, Landon and Mary Lloyd, Robert A. and Louisa Roberts, Tennessee and Sophia Lloyd, and Wiley Dillon.

We give an incident that happened to one of these men, kindly furnished by our Johnson county friend, Captain Slimp, to whom we are greatly indebted for valuable information.

GOING UP THE SPOUT.

"Robert P. Walsh, a well-known and prominent citizen of Johnson county, was several years a member of the County Court and was in many respects a conspicuous person. In 1861-62 he became offensive to the Southern chivalry, and was spotted as good material on whom to wreak rebel vengeance. Mr. Walsh anticipated that trouble might arise, so he prepared for consequences, should such arise. He made a trap-door in his floor by which he might escape if it should become necessary. He was not much too soon in getting ready for his only alternative. The usual desperadoes, his fatal enemies, made a vigorous dash on him, accompanied by hideous yells, and captured him before he could reach his loophole. His enemies showed great delight and uttered alarming threatenings. They were heard to say, 'We have got the one we have been looking for.'  Robert at this time was not very loquacious, but kept in possession his mental poise and his plans for his escape. The chief in command was very gruff and surly, and told the prisoner it would not be long till he would be 'gone up the spout.' In that day 'up the spout' meant hang or shoot him.

"This put the condemned prisoner to his last wits. 'You say I have to go up the spout?' exclaimed the prisoner. 'Yes, indeed, sir,' was the consoling answer. He said then to the elated victors, 'Generous, sirs, and liberal gentlemen, will you allow me to retire into my back room to change my clothing, as I wish to die in clean apparel,' manifesting great distress and anguish, as if dreading the pangs of death. His last request was granted. The prisoner and officer mournfully retired into the back room with the view of changing the doomed prisoner's clothing. Robert's trap-door being in good working order, he stooped down, pretending to pick up a piece of his garments, he touched the faithful trigger of his smiling trap-door and as quick as the vivid flash of lightning the yawning chasm welcomed Robert into his region of supreme felicity prepared with his own hands. The astonished officer immediately gave the alarm that the prisoner had mysteriously disappeared. The soldiers on the outside, when the alarm was made, saw a blue streak ascending a steep hill, they exclaimed, 'Halt, halt, halt.' at the same time fired a shower of bullets after the escaped prisoner, who hallooed back, 'No time now to halt, I am now going up the spout.' "

This incident, telling how a loyal woman played a successful ruse on rebel officers and saved her son's life, is related by Captain Slimp:

"Robert E. Goodwin is a well-known citizen of Carter county. He was an earnest supporter of the Union cause. He defined his political lines as he went along, regardless of consequences. He soon became known to the Union people for his hospitality, and his house was a stopping place for hungry and tired Union men. He afforded all such a share of his liberality, and none went away hungry. His wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Goodwin, being also of a liberal disposition, became a favorite of the Union people; she gave freely a liberal share of her meat and bread.

"The pinching times like the war days made it burdensome and dangerous to men like R. E. Goodwin. Hungry refugees had to eat some man's meat and bread. This made his residence too public for his safety. Parker, whose name was a synonym for all crimes and at the mention of which Nero himself, while dancing in the presence of the flames consuming Rome, would have blushed. It was well known that Parker was already steeped in crime of an unparalleled character, having with him Hays and others, who were no less infamous for crime. They arrested Goodwin and took him where they called headquarters for trial, of course a mock trial. The charges falsely preferred against him were read out with much judicial dignity. He violated the laws of the Southern Confederacy. He was immediately put on trial. Blackstone and Story were eclipsed and sunk into obscurity for the lack of dignity and style. Ostentation and gravity, embellished with imposing ceremonies. This great judicial Sanhedrim would not permit the prisoner to have counsel: They went into trial. While the trial was progressing, and at an opportune time, the prisoner's mother, Mrs. Catherine Shoun, appeared in haste in the presence of the bogus court and reported that 'a great number of bushwhackers were in motion and in shooting distance. On this report the spurious court tumbled to ruins and was seized with a wild commotion and a general panic ensued, and it dispersed in all directions, thus liberating the hopeless prisoner to go hence without danger. Aunt Katie's ruse saved another life and Robert retired with ecstatic joy."

8TH CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This District, known as Shady, lies contiguous to the Virginia line on the north and extends to the Carter county line on the west. It is very mountainous and rough but contains some fertile valleys and fine timber and minerals.

A large majority of the people, as we have been informed, were loyal and true to the Union cause. It was the scene of a number of conflicts and tragedies. The Union citizens, both men and women, did much in the way of feeding and concealing refugees and conscripts, and were persecuted for their loyalty as in other places, yet this did not change their sentiments or deter them from rendering aid to the suffering and starving refugees.

We give the names of the people who resided in that locality during the Civil War as far as we can: Jesse Cole, Sr., and his wife, Celia, Jesse Cole, Jr., and wife, Rachel, George W. Cole and wife, Sarah, Samson and Nancy Cole, Andrew and Susan Wright, Moses and Lydia Wright, William and Rachel Sevier, Lewis and Susan Garland.

10TH CIVIL DISTRICT, JOHNSON COUNTY.

This is known as the "Dugger District" from the large number of its inhabitants who bear that name. The name of Dugger has always been a prominent one in Johnson county, rivaling the Shouns and Stouts in number and prominence. They also rivaled them in their loyalty, and theirs is a familiar name on the company's rolls of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry as well as other loyal regiments.

We place on record here an extensive list of names of men. and women who were loyal and true to their flag, their country and their homes, and worthy to be numbered among the "Heroes and Heroines of Johnson and Carter Counties."

In loyalty and patriotism, in their sufferings and persecutions, in the heroic manner in which the loyal people of these two counties braved every danger there was no dividing line between them. They were one people in sentiment, in devotion to the flag and to the cause of the Union; and one in their sentiments of affection for each other and for the friends of the Union whoever they might be.

All we have said concerning the brave Union men and women of Carter county and of other sections of Johnson county may be applied with equal truth to those whose names we give here, and of each and all of the brave men and noble women of those days, history affords no instances in any age or country of greater heroism than was displayed by the loyal men and women of East Tennessee, and especially of these two counties which were the very last to receive aid from the Federal Government; and the aid that came at last was largely that of our own 'brave• and loyal East Tennesseeans who, after helping to fight their country's battles on almost every field from the Potomac to the Mississippi rivers were at last permitted to help redeem their own homes.

Names of men and women who resided in the 10th Civil District of Johnson county during the Civil War: John Dugger, Sr., and wife, Mary; John Dugger, Jr., and wife, Rhoda; William B. and Elizabeth Dugger, Samuel and Hannah Dugger. Jacob F. and Mary Dugger, Joseph and Eliza Dugger, Peter and Elizabeth Dugger, Solomon Q. and McNary Dugger, James and Rebecca Dugger,, Julius B. and Barthena Dugger, Joseph H. and Catherine. Dugger, Alexander and Elizabeth Dugger, William H. and Barbara Dugger, Col. Alex. W. Baker and wife, Naomi; Benjamin and Susanna Cable, Thomas and Mary. Whitehead, Harrison and Hannah Gregg, Harrison and Elizabeth Buntin, Elijah and Emily Buntin, Thomas and Nancy Anderson, Thomas and Jane Cowan, John and Millie Anderson, Hugh and Elizabeth Reese, Hiram and Louisa Burton, Stanton and Mary Franklin, Daniel and Sarah Baker, Levi and Lida Guy, Joseph P. and Rebecca Campbell.

DARING RAIDS INTO CARTER AND JOHNSON COUNTIES.

A few feeble but daring efforts were made by Union men to chastise the so-called Johnson and Sullivan county home-guards who committed so many depredations in Carter and Johnson counties, and to pay back in kind to the rebel citizens of Johnson county who were the instigators of much of their cruelty. Among these was the following:

HARTLY'S RAID INTO JOHNSON COUNTY.

In the winter of 1864, James Hartly, a citizen of Elk Mill, Carter county, who had joined the 4th Tennessee Infantry, and made his escape when that regiment was captured at McMinnville, Tenn., came back into Carter county. He got together a small squad of well-armed Federal soldiers, and these were joined by a number of Union scouters and altogether they left the vicinity of Elk Mill for the purpose of making a raid into Johnson county to harass some of the disloyal citizens there who had been active in persecuting the Union people and to give the Johnson county home-guards a fight if they came in the way.

When this force reached Col. Sam Howard's, on Little Doe, Hartly learned that three rebel soldiers had recently passed going towards Taylorsville. It was late in the afternoon, and supposing that the rebel soldiers, knowing nothing of Hartly being in the country, would stop and stay all night with some rebel citizens, Hartly followed them, stopping at every rebel house until he came to the home of Samuel McEwin, who was a rebel citizen, but a good inoffensive man. It was after dark and Hartly surrounded the house with his men and went to the door and demanded admittance, hoping to find the rebel soldiers there. McEwin did not open the door, but probably not knowing the house was surrounded, left it by another door and started to run away,. but was fired on by Hartly's men and instantly killed.

It was claimed by the Union people that Hartly did not mean to kill McEwin, but that the man who fired on him thought he was one of the rebel soldiers, it being after night, and that Hartly and his men regretted the unfortunate affair. On the other hand it has been alleged by McEwin's friends that he was murdered for purposes of robbery. All agree that he was an inoffensive man.

Hartly then crossed the Doe Mountain to the place of a rebel citizen known as "Gray Jake" Wagner, who lived on Roan's Creek, and captured him and two of his horses. He went from there to the home of "Hog Dave" Wagner and captured him and his son-in-law, both active rebel citizens. Hartly went from there to the home of James Brown, another rebel citizen who had been in active sympathy with the movements of the home guards, but found that Brown and his wife had gone to church, some distance away near Col. Alex. Baker's. Hartly then went on over to Baker's, where the meeting (preaching) was going on. By this time the home guards at Taylorsville had been notified of Hartly's movements and 4o or 5o of them came down on a run (mounted) to attack and drive him out of the country, or capture and hang or shoot him and his men. But they found Hartly a tough proposition to run up against. Though the home guards outnumbered him greatly in armed men, Hartly gave them such a warm reception that they soon beat a hasty retreat, having several of their men wounded, but none killed. When they started to retreat it is said that Hartly yelled at them to stand their ground and fight like men and not run away like cowards. When the home guards came James Brown, who was in the church, ran out and jumped on the horse that had his wife's side saddle on it. In the confusion while the fight was going on, Wagner and his son-in-law made their escape with the two horses, but Hartly's men captured Brown's horse and his wife's side saddle.

SOME ECHOES OF THE CIVIL WAR.

The bitterness and strife engendered during the Civil War among neighbors, friends and even kindred were such that it was believed by many before the close of the conflict that the people could never dwell together again in peace, and if the North was victorious the citizens who had favored disunion would probably emigrate farther South, and likewise if the South should win the Unionists would seek homes in the North or West, otherwise the old feuds would be kept up until one or more generations passed away.

In pursuance of that idea many Southern men left their homes for a time, but it was soon learned that with the close of hostilities those especially who had fought through the war had had enough of strife and bloodshed and these on both sides appeared willing to forgive and forget and "let the dead past bury its dead."

Those who had seen little of actual war were as a rule the most vindictive. But few years had passed away until those who had worn the "blue" and those who had worn the "gray" began to mix and mingle with each other in social, church and business relations and after the excitement and passion that had ruled the hour had subsided, and reason resumed its sway over the minds of men each began to give the other credit for honesty of purpose in the views they had entertained and for which each had offered up the strongest proof of sincerity in his convictions that man can possibly give—life itself.

But for many years there continued to be, here and there, a few allusions to the past even between those who had become good friends. Sometimes they came up in a good-natured way in the shape of jokes and witticisms; at other times they were the overflowing of some good honest Union man, who, while he bore no malice or will in his heart towards those whom he had once regarded as his enemies, could not at all times refrain from alluding in a somewhat uncomplimentary way to the "Lost Cause" and its followers.

A story illustrating this point, in which the Rev. John Hughes is the central figure seems worth relating. Rev. Hughes was an ardent Union man who like mans other East Tennesseeans "proved his faith by his works," and joined the Federal army, and was a gallant soldier, meeting with the sad misfortune during his service of losing an eye by a rebel bullet.

After the war he became an able minister in the M. E. Church and was held in high esteem by all who knew him, both on account of his ability as a preacher, and his character as a Christian gentleman. We have been informed that he was a native of Greene county, and a citizen of Greeneville, Tenn. He was a member of the Holston Conference and at a meeting of the District Conference held in the old college building at Johnson City, Tenn.. in the early 70's Rev. Hughes was on the programme, and the subject assigned him was "The Evils of Wars" There was a large audience in attendance, among them those who had fought in the Confederate army as well as many who had been Union soldiers. He described the cruelty of war, especially of civil war, in which friend was arrayed against friend, brother against brother, and father against son. He described the home-leaving, some going into one army and some into the other; the anguish of mothers. wives, sisters and daughters; he portrayed the sufferings and horrors and cruelties of war in vivid words, and compared it with the spiritual warfare, the strife against evil. In his sermon he touched upon the cruelties practiced upon the Union people in East Tennessee and censured the Confederate authorities, but in his peroration he spoke of the proclamation of peace and the gladness of the soldiers of both armies in being able to return to their homes and described their home-coming and the blessings of peace and re-uniting of families and friends who had been separated and estranged so long, in such glowing terms that he moved his audience to tears, Federals and Confederates alike.

It was announced that Rev. Hughes would preach at night, and he was greeted with a large congregation and although he had "tramped on the toes" of the ex-rebels, supposing his evening sermon would not pertain to secular things, quite a number of them attended. The preacher announced that his text would be found in Luke 3d chapter and 14th verse, and read as follows: "The soldiers likewise demanded of him saying, and what shall we do?" His ex-Confederate auditors suspecting from the text that like his day talk his sermon would be along the lines of the war got up, one by one, and left the house, all except two, who were both prominent men and had been in the Confederate army. They looked at each other and settled down in their seats and gave the preacher the best of attention. He dwelt for sometime on the life of the soldier, speaking of the hardships and dangers associated with it, and the patience and courage and faith in his superior officers, the necessity of promptness in performing his whole duty, stating that the same patience, courage and faith were necessary in the life of the Christian in combatting the evils of sin. Finally warming up he recounted many of the cruelties practiced upon the Union people of East Tennessee and again paid his respects to the Confederate soldiers and government for the atrocities that had been committed, pointing out many of them. His two Confederate auditors winced under his excoriation of the conduct of their government towards the loyal people of East Tennessee, but they remained and heard him through.

After the congregation was dismissed one of the men was heard to say to the other, "What do you think of the sermon?" The other replied: "Well, there is a great deal of truth in what he said, there was a great deal of unnecessary cruelty shown towards the loyal men of East Tennessee by our people."

At another time the Rev. Mr. Hughes was engaged in what is known as a union-revival meeting at a Southern M. E. Church. It so happened that the minister of that church had been a Confederate soldier. The meeting was a very successful one and resulted in many conversions and a general awakening of religious fervor and zeal. At one of the meetings the ministers both got very happy and were shaking hands around when the Southern minister grasped the hand of Mr. Hughes and said: "Thank God, Brother Hughes, there will be no deformities in heaven, and no eyes shot out there." The brother replied: "Yes, and thank the Lord there will be no rebels there to shoot them out." The good old brother probably did not mean it in the sense that no rebels would get to heaven, but that in that world all would be peace and brotherly love.

In writing up the various subjects pertaining to the people of Carter and Johnson counties we have had frequent occasion to allude to the manners and customs and their modes of enjoyment previous to the Civil War. It might be well to say that circumstances have wrought many changes that are not to be regretted; but whether these changes have brought about a greater amount of happiness it is needless to discuss.

The car of progress has driven before it many primitive customs that were necessary and desirable in their day and generation, and which contributed to the happiness and welfare of the people under the conditions that existed then, but we can scarcely lament that elegant school and college buildings, such as may be found at Elizabethton and Milligan, Mountain City and Butler, and throughout the more rural sections of Carter and Johnson counties, as well, have supplanted the less pretentious school buildings of those towns in the antebellum days, and the rude log school houses and slab-benches of the rural districts. The advancement in education, we trust, is driving out the great impediment to progress and refinement to social order, and to that desirable state of society that will discountenance, disapprove and banish forever from its presence that greatest enemy of mankind, alcohol, which has been so fruitful of crime and so detrimental to all that is good and noble and elevating, both among the rich and the poor, and in high and low places. Neither can we very well offer regrets that the quiltings and log-rollings and corn-huskings, the shooting matches and musters, the frolics and dances have given place to a great extent, at least in the better class of society, to more refined amusements and enjoyments, such as the theatre, the club-room, the reading-room, tea parties, Sunday school, the Christian Associations of various kinds, and other modern modes of entertainment looking to a higher enjoyment of life, and to the improvement of the mind, enlarging human capacity to enjoy the manifold blessings of life, and teaching the great lesson of love which embraces the whole Divine law.

Let us trust that in the Divine plan the scenes through which the generation that is now rapidly passing away, passed, was for some great purpose, though incomprehensible to us. Perhaps such scenes were necessary to demonstrate the horrors of civil war with such awfulness that none would dare repeat it; to place the seal of condemnation forever upon human slavery, and to teach other great lessons. Perhaps it was all necessary to seal, in an indissoluble Union, never to be broken, the great commonwealths, extending from ocean to ocean, and from the icy and inhospitable climate of the North to the gentle breezes of the gulf where perennial flowers grow, so that, united they would bless mankind forever with an example of "Liberty enlightened by law;" and its effulgent rays be destined to give light and liberty to all peoples to the end of time.

Were these the purposes and designs of the great Civil War in the mind of Deity, which for the fierceness of the struggle, the heroism displayed on both sides, its duration, loss of life and property, the suffering it entailed, has no parallel in the history of modern times, (and who can say these were not its purposes?) then the South, as well as the North. was in the right. Those who fought under the stars and bars were fulfilling the same destiny as those who fought under the stars and stripes, and all were instruments, first in purifying, and next in giving prestige to a Government that is to be the hope of the world, and the arbiter of nations; whose flag must be the emblem of peace, and whose strength and greatness must lie in the intelligence, patriotism and Christian principles of its people, and, with the world's consciousness of a mighty power, to be wielded only for the right, and for the defense of the weak, peace will at last prevail over all the earth, and war, with its horrors, will be known no more.

In apparent fulfillment of such a destiny, at the close of hostilities, more than a million of armed men, fresh from the field of strife, assumed the duties of citizenship, and turned their thoughts at once to building up ruined homes and fortunes, exhibiting no trace of the demoralization of the camp, but became the leading citizens of the nation, and the country went forward in progress, in the arts and sciences, in agriculture and in all the peaceful pursuits of life as no other country ever has done, obliterating the scars of Civil War, building churches and institutions of learning, uniting the remote parts of the country by bands of steel, pushng out for their share of the world's commerce, keeping pace with the age in inventions, and only pausing at almost the close of the century that had seemingly come near witnessing its annihilation, to drive Spain from the Western Continent at almost a single blow, to emphasize its adherence to the Monroe Doctrine, and demonstrate that our nation is a world power.

We have ample reason to believe that our country under the guidance of wise and safe rulers, purified through the fiery furnace of civil war, united, prosperous and happy, has a destiny before it far greater and grander than its most optimistic founders, builders and defenders ever dared to dream of.

"Sail on, 0, ship of State!
Sail on, 0 Union, strong and great!
Humanity with all its fears,
With all the hopes of future years,
"Is hanging breathless on thy fate."

 

© 2008 Nola Duffy and/or individual contributors. You are welcome to copy information found on this Greene County  for your personal use, but this information may not be sold,  used,  reposted or cached elsewhere  without expressed permission of the copyright holder(s).  Last updated 02/20/2008