Organized at Camp Trousdale December 16, 1861; consolidated with 55th (McKoin's) Tennessee Infantry April 18, 1862 to form 44th Consolidated Tennessee Infantry; reorganized May 5, 1862; field consolidation with 25th Tennessee Infantry October, 1863; paroled at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865.
Some of the companies bore different letters in the interval between the first consolidation and the final organization with election of regimental officers. The letters shown are those used after the final reorganization.
Shortly after organization the regiment moved to Camp Hardee, Bowling Green, Kentucky, where it was placed in Brigadier General S. A. M. Wood's Brigade, along with the 7th Alabama, 5th, 7th, 8th, and a battalion from the 9th Arkansas Infantry Regiments, and the 3rd Mississippi Infantry Battalion. Following the fall of Fort Donelson February 16, 1862, the brigade fell back through Nashville to Murfreesboro, where on February 23, 1862, the brigade was reported as composed of the following units: 7th, 16th Alabama, 8th Arkansas, battalion from 9th Arkansas, 27th, 44th, 55th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, the 3rd Mississippi Battalion, two batteries, and Avery's Georgia Cavalry. The brigade was placed in Brigadier General Gideon J. Pillow's Division, but shortly Brigadier General T. C. Hindman took command of the division.
As part of this division the brigade was engaged in the Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862. General Wood, in his report, stated the 44th entered the battle with 250 muskets. Doctor Noblitt, Assistant Surgeon for the regiment, said in his account in Lindsley's Annals, that the 44th entered the engagement with 470 men in line, and at roll call Tuesday morning, April 9, 120 answered to their names. Colonel McDaniel and Lieutenant Colonel Shied were both wounded, and Major Johnson had been absent from the regiment for some time because of illness.
As a result, on April 18, 1862, the 44th was permanently consolidated with the 55th (McKoin's) regiment which had also suffered heavy losses, to form the 44th Tennessee Infantry Regiment Consolidated, or the 44th Tennessee Infantry, 2nd Organization.
Field officers appointed by General Hardee were Colonel John H. Kelly, 3rd Arkansas Battalion; Lieutenant Colonel John L.McEwen, from 55th Tennessee; Major Henry C. Ewin (or Ewen) from 55th Tennessee. After company officers were elected, they were authorized by General Bragg to choose their own field officers, and John S. Fulton, of the 44th, was elected to. replace Colonel Kelly, but McEwen was continued as lieutenant colonel and Ewin as major. Major Ewin was mortally wounded at the Battle of Murfreesboro December 31, 1862, and Captain G. M. Crawford succeeded him as Major. One company report stated Andrew Ewing was chosen major, and Doctor Noblitt listed William Ewing, but it is believed these were errors, as no Ewing was found in the muster rolls of the 44th Consolidated Regiment, and it is believed Henry C. Ewin is the correct name. On April 26 the 44th Consolidated was reported with 489 electives, in Wood's Brigade, composed of the 16th Alabama, 8th Arkansas, 33rd Mississippi, 27th, 44th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, Avery's Georgia Dragoons, and the Jefferson Light Artillery.
The brigade fell back to Tupelo May 29; moved from Tupelo on July 27 for Chattanooga, where Brigadier General Bushrod R, Johnson took command of the brigade which was placed in Major General Simon B. Buckner's Division. It moved up through the Sequatchie Valley for General Bragg's invasion of Kentucky; was present at the surrender of Munfordville, Kentucky; and engaged at the Battle of Perryville, October 8, 1862. At this time, the brigade consisted of the 5th (9th) Confederate, 17th, 23rd, 25th, 37th, and 44th Tennessee Regiments, plus Darden's Battery. The 44th had 43 casualties in this battle.
On November 22, 1862, Johnson's Brigade was reported as consisting of the 17th, 23rd, 37th and 44th Tennessee Regiments. The 17th, 23rd, and 44th continued together until the end of the war. In the Battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862, Johnson's Brigade was in Major General Pat R. Cleburne's Division, and had been increased by the addition of the 25th Tennessee Regiment. The 44th reported 509 men engaged, 174 killed, wounded and missing, including 19 out of 28 officers.
The regiment went into winter quarters at Tullahoma, remained there until April 22, 1863, when it moved to Wartrace; from there on May 24 to Fairfield; and at Hoover's Gap June 24-25, 1863 was in Major General A. P. Stewart's Division, Johnson's Brigade, in support of General William B. Bate's Brigade.
Johnson's Brigade formed the rear guard of Major General William J. Hardee's Corps as it fell back in July from Tullahoma to Chattanooga, and the 44th was stationed around Loudon and Charleston until early in September. At Loudon, on July 12, 1863, General Johnson reported that 104 men from the 44th had been left in Middle Tennessee by desertion and otherwise.
From Charleston the regiment moved to Chickamauga, Georgia on September 8, and was engaged in the Battle of Cbickamauga September 19-20, 1863, as part of General Johnson's Provisional Division. Here Colonel Fulton was in command of the brigade, and the 44th reported 113 casualties out of 294 engaged, including Lieutenant Colonel McEwen who was wounded. Prior to the battle 56 barefoot men had been sent to the rear.
On October 31, at Cherokee Springs, still in Stewart's Division, the brigade was reported as composed of the 17th/23rd, and 25th/44th Tennessee Regiments. Here began a field consolidation with the 25th which was to continue for the duration, although separate muster rolls were maintained. On November 22, the brigade was transferred to Buckner's Division, Lieutenant General Longstreet's Corps, for the invasion of East Tennessee. On November 30, the 63rd Tennessee was reported as a member of the brigade, and these five regiments constituted Johnson's Brigade until the consolidation of Johnson's and Archer's brigades in January 1865.
The 44th was present at the assault on Fort Sanders, Knoxville, November 29, 1863; moved to Rogersville; fought at Bean's Station December 14; moved to Morristown January, 1864; to Dandridge January 15; to Lick Creek February 29; to Midway March 1; from Midway on March 28 to Greeneville, to Jonesboro, to Zollicoffer (now Bluff City), to Vance's Store; to Abingdon, Virginia; left Abingdon April 22 for Richmond; fought at Walthall Junction, Swift Creek and Drewry's Bluff in May, 1864; at Petersburg June 15; and on June 18 was in the trenches outside of Petersburg. In May, 1864 it had been transferred to Beauregard's Department of North Carolina and South Virginia, Major General Robert F. Hoke's Division, with Colonel Fulton in command of the brigade.
On May 9, 1864, 125 men from the 44th, under Lieutenant Francis M. Kelso, were detailed to man the heavy artillery at Fort Clifton, and engaged in a battle with Federal gunboats which they drove off with considerable damage. On May 16, at Drewry's Bluff, Lieutenant Colonel McEwen and Major McCarver were mortally wounded, and command of the 25th/44th fell upon Captain William N. James. In this engagement, he reported 95 casualties out of 250 electives engaged. Major Crawford also later died of wounds received here. On June 16, Lieutenant Kelso and his company captured a number of prisoners and three stands of colors, but on June 22 the colors of the 44th were captured by the 48th Pennsylvania Infantry at Petersburg. On June 30, Colonel Fulton was struck by a shell, and mortally wounded. Company reports show the regiment at Signal Hill, Virginia, August 13, 1864; stationed at Chaffin's Farm September and October; near Petersburg November-December, 1864. No further details of the regiment's activities were found, but in January, 1865, Johnson's and Arcber's Brigades were consolidated under Colonel (later brigadier general) William McComb, formerly of the 14th Tennessee. The lst Confederate, 7th and 14th Tennessee Regiments, and the 2nd Marvland Battalion were the additions which formed the consolidated brigade. On February 28, 1865 Captain Jonathan E. Spencer was reported in command of the 25th/44th. The regiment, as part of this brigade, Major General Heth's Division, Lieutenant General A. P. Hill's Corps, was surrendered and paroled with Lee's Army at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865.
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This unit history was extracted from Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1. Copyrighted © 1964 by the “Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee” and is published here with their permission.
This history may not be republished for any reason without the written permission of the copyright owner.
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