Organized June 11, 1861; Confederate service August 15, 1861; reorganized May 10, 1862; formed Companies "C" and "H" of the 3rd Consolidated Tennessee Infantry Regiment April 9, 1865; paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina May 1, 1865.
Several companies changed company letters when they were transferred from state into Confederate service. The letters shown below are those used in Confederate service, with a notation of the previous letters where applicable.
Of the field officers, Colonel Cummings and Major Fulkerson were not re-elected at the reorganization. Colonel Walker was killed July 22, 1864. Lieutenant Colonel Moore was killed November 25, 1863. Major Jarnagin died June 15, 1862.
The companies which formed the regiment were organized during May and June, 1861. They assembled at Knoxville where they were organized into a regiment in the Provisional Army of Tennessee, and were transferred to Confederate service at Cumberland Gap.
About July 1, 1861 the regiment was ordered to Cumberland Gap, in Brigadier General Felix K. Zollicoffer's command, and moved on September 14 to Cumberland Ford, along with the 11th and 17th Tennessee Infantry Regiments. Soon after, Companies "B" and "K" formed part of a battalion under Colonel Battle of the 2Oth Tennessee, which had a slight skirmish near Barbourville, Kentucky, and here is believed to have been the first Confederate soldier to be killed outside of Virginia. This was Lieutenant Robert Powell, of Company "K".
On September 15, 1861, Zollicoffer's Command was reported as consisting of the 16th Alabama, 14th and 15th Mississippi, 11th, 17th, 19th, 20th, 34th, or 4th (Churchwell's) and 26th Tennessee Infantry Regiments plus four battalions of cavalry. The 19th reported total present and absent, 941 with 719 effectives out of 821 present. On September 24, at Camp Buckner, Cumberland Ford, the 19th reported 616 effective, 812 present, out of a total of 951 present and absent. On November 2, the 17th and 19th were reported at Jacksboro. On November 20, the 19th was at Wartburg with 631 effective, 693 present, 939 present and absent.
The 19th was present, but not actively engaged at the affair at Wild Cat, Kentucky, on October 22, 1861, and its first major engagement was at Fishing Creek, Kentucky on January 19, 1862. Here it was in Zollicoffer's Brigade, composed of the 15th Mississippi, 19th, 20th, 25th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, and Rutledge's Tennessee Battery. Here Zollicoffer was killed and Colonel Cummings took command of the brigade after his death. The 19th had 34 casualties in this battle.
After the battle, Colonel Winfield S. Statham, of the 15th Mississippi, was in command of the brigade, which retreated, first to Murfreesboro, then to Corinth, Mississippi. On February 23, 1862, the brigade consisted of the 15th and 22nd Mississippi, 19th, 20th, 28th, and 45th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, and Rutledge's Battery.
At Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, the brigade was in Brigadier General John C. Breckinridge's Division, but the 19th, on the morning of the 6th was detached to operate with Colonel George Maney, on the extreme right wing. In the afternoon, it made a charge with Maney's Battalion, and the 6th and ~ Tennessee Regiments, and then reported to Breckinridge. A report of casualties was not found, but Colonel C. W. Heiskell, in his sketch in Lindsley's Annals stated that the loss in killed and wounded was over 25% of about 400 engaged.
As part of Breckinridge's Corps, the brigade moved to Vicksburg, Mississippi, arriving June 28, 1862, where on July 4 the 19th was part of a force sent on a march through the swamps to dislodge a Federal force thought to have been landed by gunboats. As a result of this expedition, chills and fever reduced the effective force of the regiment to about 100 men. From Vicksburg the brigade moved to Louisiana, where on August 4, in Brigadier General Charles Clark's Division, it was engaged in the Battle of Baton Rouge, with only one casualty for the 19th; a few days later it occupied Port Hudson.
On September 9, 1862, the brigade was reported as part of Major General Earl Van Dorn's command in the Vicksburg area. Here Colonel Statham was killed. On September 24, the brigade, with Colonel Walker in command, moved by rail to Mobile, to Montgomery, to Chattanooga, to London, and then to Murfreesboro in time for the battle at that place on December 31, 1862. At Murfreesboro, the 19th was in Major General B. F. Cheatham's Division, Brigadier General A. P. Stewart's Brigade, composed of the 4th/Sth, 19th, 24th, 3lst/33rd Tennessee Infantry Regiments, and Stanford's Mississippi Battery. The 19th suffered 127 casualties out of 380 engaged, including Major Jarnagin, who was killed. The regiment was commended by General Stewart for gallantry in action.
In June, 1863, Stewart was promoted to major general in command of the division, and Colonel (later brigadier general) O. F. Strahl was given command of the brigade. As part of his brigade, the 19th participated in the Battle of Chickamauga, September 19-20, suffering 94 casualties out of 242 engaged, including Major Heiskell, who was severely wounded.
At Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863, as part of the same brigade, the 19th had 18 casualties, including Lieutenant Colonel B. F. Moore, who was killed. On December 14, the 19th reported 165 effectives out of 195 present. On February 20, 1864, Strahl's Brigade was transferred to Cheatham's Division, and engaged almost daily in the retreat to Atlanta which began in May, 1864. Commenting on this period Colonel Heiskell stated "The 19th was never once driven from any position to which it was assigned."
In June, 1864, Colonel Walker was given command of Maney's Brigade, but refused to accept the assignment unless he could take his regiment with him, so the 19th transferred for a time to Maney's Brigade, composed of the lst/27th, 4th Confederate (also called 34th Tennessee), 6th/9th, 19th and 5Oth Tennessee Infantry Regiments. Walker was killed at Peachtree Creek July 22, 1864, and Major Heiskell became colonel of the regiment. On August 31, 1864, the 24th Tennessee Infantry Battalion was shown as a part of the brigade, but on September 20, the 24th Battalion was gone, and the 34th/46th Tennessee Regiment added.
Just when the l0th returned to Strahl's Brigade is not known, but it was evidently before the Battle of Franklin, for Colonel Heiskell speaks of their beloved brigade commander, General Strahl, being killed upon the enemy's works about midway of the 19th Regiment. At any rate, on December 10, 1864, Strahl's Brigade, commanded by Colonel Andrew I. Kellar, was reported as consisting of the 4th, 5th, 31st, 33rd, 38th, and 19th/24th/4lst Tennessee Infantry Regiments, with Captain Daniel A. Kennedy commanding the l0th/ 24th/4lst Regiment.
After the Battle of Nashville, the men who escaped capture or casualty, under the command of Colonel Heiskell, foimed part of the force under General Walthall that covered the retreat of Hood's Army from Tennessee. They then moved to North Carolina to join General Joseph E. Johnston, and in the order of battle for Johnston's Army dated March 31, 1865, Strahl's Brigade, commanded by Colonel James D. Tillman, was shown as consisting of 4th/5th/3lst/33rd/38th, and l0th/ 24th/4lst Tennessee Regiments, with the 19th/24th/4lst commanded by Colonel C. W. Heiskell. In the final reorganization of Johnston's Army April 9, 1865 the 4th/5th/l0th/ 24th//31st/33rd/35th/38th/4lst Tennessee Regiments formed the 3rd Consolidated Tennessee Infantry Regiment, commanded by Colonel James D. Tillman.
According to Colonel Heiskell, it had only 64 men left at the surrender, having been engaged in every pitched battle except that of Perryville fought by the Army of Tennessee.
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This unit history was extracted from Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1. Copyrighted © 1964 by the “Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee” and is published here with their permission.
This history may not be republished for any reason without the written permission of the copyright owner.
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