Tennesseans in the Civil War
Confederate Artillery Units

 


1st TENNESSEE HEAVY
ARTILLERY REGIMENT

This regiment was organized May 10, 1862, at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, with 10 companies which had previously seen service as independent batteries.

FIELD OFFICERS

CAPTAINS

In December, 1862, Caruthers', Johnston's and Lynch's Batteries arrived at Vicksburg, and Johnston's was attached to the regiment as Co. "L" by order of General M. L. Smith. The other two batteries served with the regiment until the surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, but were not attached as permanent members. The regiment was placed in charge of the upper batteries, from Fort Hill to the upper bayou, under the command of Colonel Edward Higgins. Colonel Jackson reported on the passage of the batteries by enemy boats on the night of April 2, 1863, in which 391 shots were fired by the regiment, and the 10" Columbiad, commanded by Captain J. P. Lynch, jumped the pintle at the 12th discharge.

Colonel Higgins, in reporting on the siege, gave great credit to Captains Lynch and Johnston for the handsome manner in which their guns were handled in the engagement in which the Cincinnati was sunk on May 27, 1863; and to Colonel Jackson, "who, with his gallant regiment, bore the brunt of the labors and dangers of the siege, and was always ready, day or night, for any duty to which he might be called." During the siege, Major Hoadley was killed on June 8, 1863, and Major Upton, who succeeded him, had his arm so badly smashed it had to be amputated.

The regiment was surrendered and paroled as part of Brigadier General John C. Moore's Brigade on July 4, 1863. It went to parole camp at Demopolis, Alabama; then to Atlanta, Georgia; and from there to Marietta, Georgia. It was declared exchanged December 6, 1863, and ordered to Mobile on December 11, 1863, to the Appalachee Batteries, December 20, 1863.

In an undated report, Colonel Jackson wrote that the regiment and attached companies when captured and paroled at Vicksburg numbered between 500 and 600 men. "It now numbers 176 men. A number of the regiment, after being furloughed when paroled, joined the cavalry in North Mississippi and West Tennessee, and are now on duty with General Forrest's Command. Every effort to have these men returned to the regiment has failed."

In January, 1864, by order of General Polk, the members of the 1st Battalion Tennessee Light Artillery were permanently incorporated into the 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery Regiment, and portions of all companies in this battalion reported except one, J. P. Lynch's, which was attached to Brigadier General J. C. Vaughn's Cavalry Brigade in East Tennessee. General Polk's order seems to have been intended to cover Caruthers' and Lynch's Batteries, and the three batteries surrendered about the same time at Port Hudson, Louisiana, which were Fisher's, Sparkman's and Weller's Batteries. These three had been members of the attempted organization of the First Tennessee Light Artillery Regiment, although they had been serving as heavy artillery at Port Hudson.

Although regimental reports stated the regiment was declared exchanged on December 6, 1863, an order from the Adjutant and Inspector General's Office dated February 1, 1864, read: "All officers and men of the Vicksburg Capture belonging to the 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery, who reported for duty at Marietta and whose names were reported by Colonel A. Jackson, are declared exchanged." On February 4, by order of Major General D. H. Maury, commanding the District of the Gulf, the regiment was consolidated into two companies, which were known as 3rd "A", and 3rd "B", as follows:

3rd Co. "A" Captain T. N. Johnston. Most of the men in this company had previously served in Johnston's Co. "L".

3rd Co. "B" Captain James A. Fisher. Captain Fisher had previously commanded a battery of light artillery, which served as heavy artillery at Port Hudson, and was surrendered there July 10, 1863. Some men from Sparkman's Company, Tennessee Light Artillery were also in 3rd "B".

The regiment moved to Fort Morgan, Alabama on April 3, 1864, and was reported there on April 30, 1864 with Lieutenant Colonel Robert Sterling, commanding, attached to Brigadier General Richard L. Page's Brigade. On June 30, at the same place and in the same brigade, Captain H. T. Norman was reported in command.

On August 12, 1864, Brigadier General Asboth, U.S.A., reported: "The garrison at Fort Morgan numbers 600 men, 400 from the 1st Alabama Artillery, 200 from the 1st Tennessee Artillery, with General Page in command, and determined to hold the fort till the last man." On August 23, the fort having been reduced to ruins, and further resistance impossible, General Page surrendered. In his report he pays tribute to Colonel Jackson, and to Captains Johnston and Fisher and their men, for their valiant and efficient service.

The last record found on the regiment was dated November 19, 1864, when a siege train company, 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery, under Captain Paul T. Dismukes, was listed in the forces in the Trans-Mississippi Department, with headquarters at Shreveport, Louisiana.



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This unit history was extracted from Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1. Copyrighted © 1964 by the “Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee” and is published here with their permission.

This history may not be republished for any reason without the written permission of the copyright owner.

 




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